ԹԻՒ 948 ՇԱԲԱԹ, 1 ՍԵՊՏԵՄԲԵՐ 2012

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ԾԱՆՕԹԱՆԱԼ ՀԱՅ ԳԻՏՆԱԿԱՆՆԵՐՈՒ

**Armenians in Science**

**Spiru C. Haret **15 February 1851 – 17 December 1912 was a Romanian mathematician, astronomer and politician. Haret was born in Iaşi, Moldavia, to an old

Armenian family, He made a fundamental contribution to the *n*-body problem in celestial mechanics by proving that using a third degree approximation for the disturbing forces implies instability of the major axes of the orbits, and by introducing the concept of *secular **perturbations *in relation to this.

1

ՄԵԾՆ ՄՈՒՐԱՏ ԵՒ ՍԱՍՆՈՅ ԱՌԱՋԻՆ

ԱՊՍՏԱՄԲՈՒԹԻՒՆԸ (1894) Մեթր Պարգեւ Դաւիթեան

Սասնոյ առաջին ապստամբութիւնը Օսմանեան Կայսրութեան դէմ տեղի ունեցաւ 1894 թուականի Օգոստոս ամսուն, ղեկավարութեամբ Հնչակեան անվեհեր հերոս Մեծն Մուրատի (Համբարձում Պոյաճեան)։ Նոյն տարւոյն, 1894-ին, Մեծն Մուրատի եղբայրը՝ Անմահն Ժիրայր, կախաղան կը բարձրացուէր որպէս առաջատար հայ ազատատենչ Հնչակեան ֆէտայի։ Տարիներ ետք, Օգոստոս 24, 1915-ին, Մեծն Մուրատ, ինք ալ, եղբօր նման, կախաղանի վրայ կ՛անմահանար որպէս հայկական Ցեղասպանութեան առաջատար զոհ։ Երկու նշանաւոր ու նահատակ Հաճընցի Հնչակեան եղբայրները այդպէսով կը հանդիսանային կորիզն ու ներշնջումի աղբիւրը Հաճընցիներուն, որոնք քաջաբար մղեցին Հաճնոյ Հերոսամարտ, եւ Սփիւռքի տարածքին տարին հայապահպանման սքանչելի գործ, Հնչակեան գաղաբարախօսութեամբ եւ հայրենասէր ազգասիրութեամբ դաստիարակուած։ Սասնոյ Ա. Ապստամբութենէն խանդավարուած ե քաջալերուած, յաջորդաբար 1895-1896 տարիներուն, տեղի ունեցաւ Զէյթունի ապստամբութիւնը, ուր եղբայրացած Հնչակ եւ Դաշնակ համբուրելի Ֆէտայիներու առաջնորդութեամբ, հայ գիւղացին ՅԱՂԹԵՑ հզօր Օսմանեան բանակին, եւ Զէյթունի գաւառը ճանչցաւ Ինքնավար Շրջանի դրութիւն մինջեւ Համաշխարհային Ա. Պատերազմի սկիզբը։ Սասնոյ ապստամբ եւ քաջարի մեր ժողովուրդը ապստամբեցաւ անգամ մը եւս 1904-ին, եւ Սասունցին ճանչցուեցաւ հայ ազգի հերոսական մարտնչումներու առաջատար զինուոր։ Մեծն Մուրատ՝ որ 1894-ի Օգոստոս ամսու վեջաւորութեան ձերբակալուեցաւ եւ Թուրք իշխանութեան կողմէ բանտարկուեցաւ Լիպիոյ Թրիփոլի քաղաքին մէջ, Հնչակեաններու կողմէ կազմակերպուած փախուստի ծրագրով բանտէն դուրս բերուեցաւ 1905-ին, եւ դարձաւ Պոլիսը ներկայացնող պետական երեսփոխան Օսմանեան Փարլամենթին մէջ 1909 թուականին։ Յատկանշական իրողութիւն է որ ազգային հերոսի պատուաբեր կոչումին արժանացած Մեծն Մուրատ, որպէս բանտարկեալ եւ որպէս պետական երեսփոխան, կոչ ուղղեց նամակներով, գրութիւններով եւ ելոյթներով հայութեան փրկութեան համար աշխատող բոլոր կողմերուն, Հնչակին եւ Դաշնակին եւ բոլորին, որ հաւաքուին մէկ դրօշի տակ տանելու ազատագրական պայքար, հաւատալով որ Հայ ժողովուրդի փրկութիւնը կը կայանար անոր միասնական ուժին մէջ։ Դժբախտաբար, զինք լսող չեղաւ եւ ան, ինչպէս բախտակից ուրիշ մեծեր, կախաղաներու վրայ կամ անդարձ ճամբաներու եզերքին , նահատակուեցան կտոր-կտոր որպէս Հնչակ ու Դաշնակ, որպէս լուսաւորչական, կաթողիկէ եւ աւետարանական կամ բողոքական։ Այսօր, Մեծն Մուրատի ազգային միասնականութեան կոչերը կը մնան այժմէական , Հայութեան բաժան-բաժան աշխատող բոլոր կողմերուն եւ ուժերուն, ի Հայաստան եւ ի սփիւռս աշխարհի, որ նային Արարատի սէգ կատարին եւ չզբաղին դէպի Արարատ տանող ճամբուն վրայ սեփական դղեակներ շինելու գործով........։

2

êîÆ ÈÆØÆîÀ êä2èàôoÈ 3⁄4

Î2ð3⁄4Ü Ú2Îà ́æ2Üo2Ü Þáõïáí Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÝ »Ýa ÆßË3Ý3Ï3Ý 13ßïÇó 3é3ç31ñáõ»Éáõ Ùï31ñáõ-

ÃÇõÝ áõÝÇ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ: Î3Û ï»ë3Ï¿ï, áñ ÇÝã-ÇÝã ·áñÍáÝÝ»ñÇ 31⁄21»óáõÃ»3Ý ï3Ï Ý3 Ï3ñáÕ ¿ ã3é3ç31ñáõ»É, μ3Ûó Ñ3ßáõÇ 3éÝ»Éáí 3ÛÝ Ñ3Ý·3Ù3ÝùÁ, áñ ÐÐÎ Õ»Ï3í3ñÁ »ñÏáõ 3Ý·3Ù Ûáõß3·Çñ ¿ ëïáñ3·ñ»É, áñáí å3ñï3õáñáõ»É ¿ 3ç3Ïó»É ÇÝùÝ Çñ»Ý, Ï3ñÍáõÙ »Ýù, áñ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÝ 3Û1áõÑ3Ý1»ñÓ Ïÿ3é3ç31ñáõÇ:

2é3ç31ñáõ»É-ã3é3ç31ñáõ»Éáõ Ñ3ñóÁ ÃáÕÝ»Éáí Å3Ù3Ý3ÏÇ ùÝÝáõÃ»3ÝÁa Ñ»ï3ùñùÇñ ÏÁ ÉÇÝ¿ñ ÇÙ3Ý3É, Ã¿ ÇÝãÇ±ó ¿ Ëûë»Éáõ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ áñå¿ë Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ Ã»ÏÝ3Íáõ »õ Ç±Ýã »ñ»ëáí ¿ Ñ3Ý- ñáõÃ»3ÝÁ 1ÇÙ»Éáõ: ¶3ÕïÝÇù ã¿, áñ ÙÇÝã»õ 3ÛÅÙ Ý3 ÇÝã 3ë»É ¿ »õ ÇÝã ËáëïáõÙ ïáõ»É ¿, ãÇ Ï3ï3ñ»Éa Æñ3Ý-Ð3Û3ëï3Ý »ñÏ3Ã·ÇÍ, Ýáñ 3ïáÙ3Ï3Û3Ý, ÐÇõëÇë-Ñ3ñ3õ Ù3ÛñáõÕÇ, ̧ÇÉÇç3ÝÁ ÙÇç31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ýÇÝ3Ýë3Ï3Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝ, æ»ñÙáõÏÁa 3éáÕç3ñ3Ý3ÛÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ, ¶ÇõÙñÇÝa ï»ËÝáå3ñÏ (1Çõñ3Ñ3õ3ï- Ý»ñÇ Ñ3Ù3ña Íáí), Ñ3Û-Ãñù3Ï3Ý ë3ÑÙ3ÝÇ μ3óáõÙ »õ3ÛÉÝ: êñ3Ýù 3Ûë ÇßË3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ïáõ3Í Ëáë- ïáõÙÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù3ëÝ ¿ÇÝ, áñáÝù ã»Ý Ï3ï3ñáõ»É: âÇ Ï3ï3ñáõ»É Ý3»õ ïÝï»ë3Ï3Ý ×·Ý3Å3ÙÇó Ëáõ- ë3÷»Éáõ ËáëïáõÙÁa ØÇ Ëûëùáí, áã ÙÇ μ3Ý ãÇ Ï3ï3ñáõ»É:

ØÇ3Ï μ3ÝÁ, áñÁ ã¿ñ Ëáëï3óáõ»É, μ3Ûó Ï3ï3ñáõ»É ¿a å»ï3Ï3Ý Ï3é3í3ñÙ3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·áõÙ μ3Ýë3ñÏáõÃ»3Ý »õ ¦ÙáõïÇÉáíÏ3Ý»ñÇ§ ß»ßï3ÏÇ 3×Ý ¿, ÇÝãå»ë Ý3»õ ïå3·Çñ »õ Ñ3Ù3ó3Ýó3ÛÇÝ Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇ (Ñ»éáõëï313ßïÝ 3ÛÉ Ëûë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ã»Ù3 ¿) ·ñ»Ã¿ 3ÙμáÕç3Ï3Ý ë»÷3Ï3Ý3ß- ÝáñÑáõÙÝ áõ ·»Õ3Ù»3Ý3óáõÙÁ (μ3ó3éáõÃ»3Ùμ 3-4 Ï3ÛùÇ »õ 1 Ã»ñÃÇa ÙÝ3ó3Í 31⁄21»óÇÏÝ»ñÁ »ñÇïû- ÉÇ·3ñËÇ3ÛÇ »õ ¦ïÇñ3óáõÇ§ 31⁄21»óáõÃ»3Ý ï3Ï »Ý): ê»÷3Ï3Ý3ßÝáñÑÙ3Ý áõ ·»Õ3ÙÛ3Ý3óÙ3Ý ÷áñ- Ó»ñ »Ý 3ñõáõÙ Ý3»õ ù3Õ3ù3óÇ3Ï3Ý 13ßïáõÙ: ì»ñç: ́3óÇ 3õ»ñ3ÍáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇóa áõñÇß áã ÙÇ μ3Ýáí 3ãùÇ ãÇ ÁÝÏ»É ¦Ý3Ë3Ó»éÝáÕ3Ï3Ý 3Ûë ÇßË3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ:

ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÝ 3ÛÅÙ ëå3é»É ¿ íëï3ÑáõÃ»3Ý μáÉáñ ÉÇÙÇïÝ»ñÁ, û·ï3·áñÍ»É ¿ ëïÇ ïáåñ3ÏÇ å3ñáõÝ3ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ 3ÙμáÕçáõÃ»3Ùμ »õ 13ï3ñÏ Ó»éù»ñáí ¿ ÙïÝ»Éáõ ÁÝïñ3å3Ûù3ñÇ Ù¿ç: ÆÝã ëáõï ¿É ÛûñÇÝ»Ý, ÙÇ»õÝáÛÝ ¿ ÷3ëï»ñÝ áõ 3ñ1ÇõÝùÝ»ñÁ Ó»éùÝ»ñÇë ï3Ï »Ý:

ê»ñÅÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑáõÃ»3Ý ëÏ1⁄2μÝ3Ï3Ý ÷áõÉáõÙ ÇßË3Ý3Ï3Ý ù3ñá1⁄2ã3Ù»ù»Ý3Ý íëï3ÑáõÃÇõÝ ¿ñ ÙáõñáõÙ Ñ3ÝñáõÃÇõÝÇóa ¦ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ Ï»ÕÍÇùÝ»ñÇ áõ Ø3ñïÇ 1-Ç ·Ýáí 13ñÓ3õ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ, μ3Ûó ¦1⁄23- ïá§ Ñ3Û-Ãñù3Ï3Ý 13ñ3Ï31⁄2ÙÇÏ ·áñÍÁÝÃ3ó ¿ ëÏë»É áõ ßáõïáí Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÁ ï3Ý»Éáõ ¿ 1¿åÇ 1⁄23ñ·3- óáõÙ§ ùÇñí3Û3Ï3Ý Ã»Ù3Ûáí: 2Û1 3Ù¿ÝÝ 3õ3ñïáõ»ó Ýñ3Ýáí, áñ ¦ýáõïåáÉ3ÛÇÝ§ 1Çõ3Ý3·ÇïáõÃÇõ- ÝÇó ÙÝ3óÇÝ ÙÇ3ÛÝ Ù»ñ Ñ3õ3ù3Ï3ÝÇ Ï»ñ3Í ·Ý13ÏÝ»ñÝ áõ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ Ñ3ñóáõÙ ÂáõñùÇ3ÛÇ 3ÏïÇõ Ý»ñ·ñ3õÙ3Ý 3ñ1ÇõÝùáõÙ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ 3Ýíï3Ý·áõÃ»3Ý ÃáõÉ3óáõÙÁ, ÇÝãå¿ë Ý3»õ Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3- ÝáõÃ»3Ý ÙÇç31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ×3Ý3ãÙ3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óÇ ÷3ëï3óÇ 1313ñ»óáõÙÁ:

Ð3Û-Ãñù3Ï3Ý ï3å3ÉáõÙÇó »õ Ë3Ûï3é3Ï ïÝï»ë3Ï3Ý 3ñ1ÇõÝùÝ»ñÇó Û»ïáÛ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ ßñç3- å3ïÇó ëÏë»óÇÝ ï3ñ3Í»É, Ã¿ ê»ñÅÁ ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿ç ËÝ1ÇñÝ»ñ áõÝ»ó3õ, μ3Ûó ¦1⁄23ïá§ μáÉáñ ûÉÇ- ·3ñËÝ»ñÇ Ñ3ñó»ñÁ ÉáõÍ»Éáõ ¿ »õ 2012-Ç Ø3ÛÇë»3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ Å3Ù3Ý3Ï 13ßïÁ Ù3ùñ»Éáõ ¿ Ù3Ï3ÝáõÝ3õáñÝ»ñÇó: 2Û1 3Ù»ÝÝ 3õ3ñïáõ»ó Ýñ3Ýáí, áñ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÝ 2Ä ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ 3ÝÓ3Ùμ ëÏë»ó ù3ñá1⁄2»É ûÉÇ·3ñË Ïáãáõ3ÍÝ»ñÇ û·ïÇÝ áõ Ýñ3Ýó Çñ3·áñÍ3Í ÁÝïñ3Ï»ÕÍÇùÝ»ñÇ ßÝáñ- ÑÇõ Ù»Í3Ù3ëÝáõÃÇõÝ í»ñóñ»ó ËáñÑñ13ñ3ÝáõÙ:

2013-Ç ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ÁÝ13é3ç ́3Õñ3Ù»3Ý 26-áõÙ Ýáñ Ñ»ùÇ3Ã »Ý Ùï3Í»É áõ ¦3ÝÏ3Ë§ Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇ û·ÝáõÃ»3Ùμ 1ñ»É ßñç3Ý3éáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿ç:

¦ê»ñÅÁ Û3çáÕáõÃ»3Ý ãÑ3ë3õ Ñ3Û-Ãñù3Ï3Ý áÉáñïáõÙ, Ëáëï3ó3Í 3ñ1ÇõÝùÝ»ñÁ ã3å3Ñáí»ó ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿ç, μ3Ûó ¦1⁄23ïá§ Ý3 3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï ¿ »õ 1¿åÇ ù3Õ3ù3óÇ3Ï3Ý Ð3Û3ëï3Ý ¿ ï3ÝáõÙ Ù»1⁄2§,- ù3ñá1⁄2áõÙ »Ý ë»ñÅ3Ñå3ï3Ï 1⁄4ÈØ-Ý»ñÁa ëïÇ ï3ñ3ÍÙ3Ý μáÉáñ é»Ïáñ1Ý»ñÁ ·»ñ31⁄23Ýó»Éáí:

2éÇÃ áõÝ»ó»É »Ýù ·ñ»Éáõ, áñ ê»ñÅÇÝ 3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï, éáõë3Ù¿ï Ï3Ù Ãñù3Ù¿ï Ý»ñÏ3Û3óÝ»ÉÁ ëË3É ¿: Ü3 3Ãáé3Ù¿ï ¿, »õ »Ã¿ 3ÝÑñ3Å»ßï ¿, 3å3 Ï3ñáÕ ¿ ÉÇÝ»É »°õ 3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï, »°õ éáõë3Ù¿ï, »°õ Ãñù3Ù¿ï. Ý3Û3Í, Ã¿ ¦ûñáõ3Û ÏáõñëÝ§ ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ ¿:

ÆëÏ »Ã¿ áÙ3Ýù Û3Ù3éûñ¿Ý áõ1⁄2áõÙ »Ý ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÇÝ ï»ëÝ»É áñå¿ë 3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï ·áñÍÇã, 3å3 ÝÙ3Ý3ïÇå 3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñ å3ïÙáõÃÇõÝÁ ï»ë»É ¿: 2Û1åÇëÇÝ ¿ÇÝ, ûñÇÝ3Ï, êêÐØ 3é3çÇÝ áõ í»ñçÇÝ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ ¶áñμ3ãáíÁ »õ ÈÇåÇ3Ï3Ý Û»Õ3÷áËáõÃ»3Ý 3é3çÝáñ1 ø313ýÇÝ: oñÏáõ- ëÇ Ñ»ï ¿É 2ñ»õÙáõïùÁ ëÇÉÇ-μÇÉÇ ¿ñ 3ÝáõÙ: ÆÝãå¿ë Û3ÛïÝÇ ¿, ¶áñμ3ãáíÇ ¦3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ïáõÃÇõÝÝ§ 3õ3ñïáõ»ó Ýñ3Ýáí, áñ Çñ Õ»Ï3í3ñ3Í »ñÏÇñÁ í»ñ3ó3õ 3ßË3ñÑÇ ù3ñï¿1⁄2Ç íñ3ÛÇó, ÇëÏ 3ñ»õÙï»3Ý 3é3çÝáñ1Ý»ñÇ Ñ»ï ·ñÏ3Ë3éÝáõ3Í ÝÏ3ñÝ»ñ áõÝ»óáÕ ø31⁄23ýÇÇÝ ÷áÕáóáõÙ ÇÝùÝ313ï3ëï3ÝÇ »Ý- Ã3ñÏ»óÇÝ (Ç 1¿å, 2ñ»õÙáõïùÇ ·áñÍáõÝ 3ç3ÏóáõÃ»3Ùμ): 2ÛÝå¿ë áñ »ñÏñÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñÇ 3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï ÇÝùÝ3Ñéã3Ïáõ»ÉÝ ÇÝùÝÇÝ 3ñÅ¿ù ã¿ »õ ÇÝùÝ3μ»ñ3μ3ñ ãÇ Û3Ý·»óÝáõÙ ïáõ»3É å»ïáõÃ»3Ý μ3ñ·3- õ3×Ù3Ý, Ù3Ý3õ3Ý1 3ÛÝ 1¿åùáõÙ »ñμ 2ñ»õÙáõïùÁ ù»1⁄2 áñå¿ë ¿Å3Ý3·ÇÝ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñ ¿ Ñ3Ù3ñáõÙ:

oõ áõñ»ÙÝ, 3Ù¿Ý ÇÝã å¿ïù ¿ 3Ý»É, áñå¿ë1⁄2Ç ¦3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï§ ê»ñÅÁ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÁ ãï3ÝÇ êêÐØ-Ç ×3Ý3å3ñÑáí, ÇÝãå¿ë Ý3»õ ã»ÝÃ3ñÏáõÇ ¦3ñ»õÙï3Ù¿ï§ ø313ýÇÇ ×3Ï3ï3·ñÇÝ: 2ÛëÇÝùÝa ×ÇßïÝ 3ÛÝ ÏÁ ÉÇÝÇ, áñ ê»ñÅÝ 3Ù¿Ý 1¿åùáõÙ ãÙ3ëÝ3ÏóÇ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ áñå¿ë Ã»ÏÝ3- Íáõ:

¦7úð§

3

Ð2Úàò òoÔ2êä2ÜàôÂÆôÜÀ üð2Üê2Î2Ü

̧2ê2¶Æðøoðàô Ø3⁄4æ

2Ûë áõëáõÙÝ3Ï3Ý ï3ñáõ3Û ÁÝÃ3óùÇÝ üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ ÙÇçÝ3Ï3ñ· 1åñáóÝ»ñáõ å3ïÙáõÃ»3Ý »õ 3ß- Ë3ñÑ3·ñáõÃ»3Ý 13ë3·Çñù»ñÁ ûÅïáõ3Í »Ý Ýáñ Íñ3·ÇñÝ»ñáí, áñáÝó Ù¿ç É3ÛÝûñ¿Ý Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõ3Í ¿ 1915-16 Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÝ»ñáõ Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ:

¶Çñù»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç ïñáõ3Í »Ý Ù3Ýñ3Ù3ëÝ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ úëÙ3Ý»3Ý Ï3ÛëñáõÃ»3Ý Ï3éáõóáõ3Í- ùÇ, ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ëÏ1⁄2μÝ3õáñÙ3Ý, ·áñÍ31ñÙ3Ý, 3Û1 Çñ313ñÓáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿ç å3ï»ñ31⁄2ÙÇ 1»ñÇ, ÇÝãå¿ë Ý3»õ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñáõ Ï3é3í3ñáõÃ»3Ý, Ãñù3Ï3Ý 31⁄2·3ÛÝ3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É: ú·- ï3·áñÍáõ3Í »Ý 3ùëáñ»3ÉÝ»ñáõ Ï3ñ3õ3ÝÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óÝáÕ Éáõë3ÝÏ3ñÝ»ñ, 3ñËÇõ3ÛÇÝ ÷3ëï3- ÃáõÕÃ»ñ »õ ù3ñï¿1⁄2 ÙÁ, áõñ Ýßáõ3Í »Ý 1⁄23Ý·áõ3Í3ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ3ÍÝ»ñáõ ßñç3ÝÝ»ñÝ áõ 3ùëáñÇ ×3Ý3- å3ñÑÝ»ñÁ:

2Ûë 3éÃÇõ ÂáõñùÇáÛ 3ñï3ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó Ý3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ áõëáõÙÝ3ëÇñáõÃÇõÝ ëÏë3Í ¿ üñ3Ý- ë3ÛÇ Ù¿ç 1åñáó3Ï3Ý 13ë3·Çñù»ñáõ Ù¿ç Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ÷3ëïÁ Ý»ñ3é»Éáõ 3éÝãáõÃ»3Ùμ: ÜÙ3Ý áõëáõÙÝ3ëÇñáõÃÇõÝ Ï3ï3ñ»Éáõ Û3ÝÓÝ3ñ3ñ3Ï3Ý ïñáõ3Í ¿ ö3ñÇ1⁄2Ç Ù¿ç ÂáõñùÇáÛ 1»ëå3Ýáõ- Ã»3Ý:

¦ÐáõñÇÛ¿Ã§ ûñ3Ã»ñÃÇÝ ïáõ3Í Ñ3ñó31⁄2ñáÛóÇ ÁÝÃ3óùÇÝ, üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ù¿ç ÂáõñùÇáÛ 1»ëå3Ý Â3Ñ- ëÇÝ äáõñ×áÛÕÉáõ Áë3Í ¿, áñ Ý3Ëáñ1 13ë3·Çñù»ñáõ áõëáõÙÝ3ëÇñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Çñ»Ýù áõÝÇÝ »õ 3ÛÅÙ åÇïÇ áõëáõÙÝ3ëÇñ»Ý Ýáñ 13ë3·Çñù»ñÁ: 2õ»ÉÇ áõß 3ÝáÝó ÑÇÙ3Ý íñ3Û 1⁄2»ÏáÛó ÏÁ Ï31⁄2ÙáõÇ:

¦2ÝÏ¿ »ïù åÇïÇ áñáß»Ýù, Ã¿ ÇÝãå¿ë å¿ïù ¿ í3ñáõÇÉ§,- Áë3Í ¿ äáõñ×áÛÕÉáõ »õ 3õ»Éóáõ3Í ¿, áñ Çñ3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿ç ÝÙ3Ý Ëûë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ »Õ3Í »Ý ï3Ï3õÇÝ 2001-ÇÝ, »ñμ üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ ËáñÑñ13ñ3- ÝÁ å3ßïûÝ3å¿ë ×3Ýãó3õ Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ:

¦ä¿ïù ¿ ÝÏ3ï»É, áñ å3ïÙáõÃ»3Ý 13ë3·Çñù»ñáõ Ù¿ç »ñÏÇñÝ»ñáõ Ñ3Ý1¿å ÃßÝ3Ù3Ýù å¿ïù ã¿ ÁÉÉ3Û: ÜÙ3Ý ûñÇÝ3Ï ÙÁ »Õ3õ ÚáõÝ3ëï3ÝÇ å3ñ3·3ÛÇÝ, »õ Ù»Ýù å3ïÙáõÃ»3Ý 13ë3·Çñù»ñ¿Ý Ñ3- Ý»É ïáõÇÝù 3ï»ÉáõÃÇõÝ »õ 1⁄2ñå3ñïáõÃÇõÝ å3ñáõÝ3ÏáÕ 3ñï3Û3ÛïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ: ê3Ï3ÛÝ ÚáõÝ3ëï3- ÝÁ 1»é 3Û1 ù3ÛÉÇÝ ã¿ ·3ó3Í: ̧åñáó3Ï3Ý 13ë3·Çñù»ñáõ Ù¿ç 3ï»ÉáõÃÇõÝ »õ ù¿Ý å¿ïù ã¿ ÁÉÉ3Û§,- Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ3Í ¿ 1»ëå3ÝÁ:

Àëï Ãáõñù Ù»ÏÝ3μ3ÝÝ»ñáõ, å3ßïûÝ3Ï3Ý 2Ý·3ñ3Ý, áñ üñ3Ýëáõ3 úÉ3Ý1Ç‘ üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ý3- Ë3·3Ñ ÁÝïñáõ»É¿Ý Ç í»ñ ö3ñÇ1⁄2Ç Ñ»ï Û3ñ3μ»ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ í»ñ3Ï3Ý·ÝÙ3Ý Ù»Í ÛáÛë»ñ ÏÁ Ï3å¿ñ, ãÇ ÏñÝ3ñ 1Å·áÑ ãÁÉÉ3Éa Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ å3ïÙáõÃÇõÝÁ 13ë3·Çñù»ñáõ Ù¿ç Ý»ñÏ3Û3óÝ»Éáõ‘ úÉ3Ý1Ç Ï3é3í3ñáõÃ»3Ý ÁÝ1áõÝ3Í áñáßáõÙ¿Ý:

üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÁ 3Ýó3Í 3ÙÇë Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ3Í ¿ñ, áñ åÇïÇ Ï3ï3ñ¿ ÁÝïñ3ñß3õÇ Çñ Ëáë- ïáõÙÁa Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ÅËïáõÙÁ ùñ¿3Ï3Ý3óÝáÕ ûñ¿ÝùÇ ÁÝ1áõÝÙ3Ý í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É:

ÂàôðøÆ2 §ä2îð2êî 3⁄4 ØÆæÜàð ̧2Î2Ü ̧oð êî2ÜÒÜoÈ¦ ÈoèÜ2ÚÆÜ

Ô2ð2 ́2ÔÆ Ð2ðòÆ ÈàôÌØ2Ü ¶Ìàì

ÂáõñùÇ3 å3ïñ3ëï ¿ ÙÇçÝáñ13Ï3Ý 1»ñ ëï3ÝÓÝ»Éáõ Õ3ñ3μ3Õ»3Ý Ñ3ñóÇ ÉáõÍÙ3Ý ·áñÍáí: 2Ûë Ù3ëÇÝ Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ3Í ¿ ÂáõñùÇáÛ 3ñï3ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó Ý3Ë3ñ3ñ 2ÑÙ»ï ̧3íáõÃûÕÉáõ:

¦Ø»Ýù å3ïñ3ëï »Ýù ÆëÃ3ÝåáõÉÇ Ù¿ç μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñå»Éáõa Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ »õ 2ïñå¿Û×3ÝÇ ÙÇç»õ, Ïÿáõ1⁄2¿ÇÝù Ý3»õ, áñ êáõñÇáÛ ßáõñç μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ »õë ÁÝÃ3Ý3ÛÇÝ ÂáõñùÇáÛ ï3ñ3ÍùÇÝ§, - 3ïñå¿Û×3Ý3Ï3Ý ¦Âñ»Ý1§ ·áñÍ3Ï3ÉáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ Áë3Í ¿ ̧3íáõÃûÕÉáõ:

Æ å3ï3ëË3Ý 3Ûë Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý, Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ 3ñï3ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó ÷áËÝ3Ë3ñ3ñ Þ3õ3ñß øáã3ñ»3Ý Áë3Í ¿. - ¦oÃ¿ ÂáõñùÇ3ÛÇ 3ñï3ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñÁ Çñ3å¿ë ó3ÝÏ3ÝáõÙ ¿ Ýå3ë- ï»É Ñ3Ï3Ù3ñïáõÃ»3Ý Ï3ñ·3õáñÙ3ÝÁ, 3å3 ÂáõñùÇ3Ý ãå¿ïù ¿ ÷áñÓÇ Ë»Õ3ÃÇõñ»É Õ3ñ3μ3Õ»3Ý ËÝ1ñÇ ¿áõÃÇõÝÁ, 3ÛÝ ¿‘ È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ ÅáÕáíñ1Ç ÇÝùÝáñáßÙ3Ý Çñ3õáõÝùÇ Çñ3Ï3Ý3óáõÙÁ, áñÇÝ Ç å3ï3ëË3Ý 2ïñå¿Û×3ÝÇ ÇßË3ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ 1ÇÙ»óÇÝ È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ μÝ3ÏãáõÃ»3Ý 1¿Ù ¿ÃÝÇÏ 1⁄2ïáõÙÝ»ñÇ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý »õ ÇÝùÝáñáßáõ3Í È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõ- Ã»3Ý 1¿Ù É3ÛÝ3Í3õ3É 3·ñ»ëÇ3ÛÇ Çñ3Ï3Ý3óÙ3Ý: ÊÝ1ñÇ Ï3ñ·3õáñÙ3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ 3ñ1ÇõÝ3õ¿ï ÏÁ ÉÇ- Ý¿ñ, »Ã¿ ÂáõñùÇ3Ý Ï3ñáÕ3Ý3ñ 1ñ1»É 2ïñå¿Û×3ÝÇÝ μ3Ý3Ïó»É Ñ3Ï3Ù3ñïáõÃ»3Ý Çñ3Ï3Ý ÏáÕÙÇ‘ È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ Ñ»ï: ÂáõñùÇ3Ý 3éÝáõ31⁄2Ý å¿ïù ¿ ãß3ñáõÝ3ÏÇ ë3ï3ñ»É 2ïñå¿Û×3ÝÇ ¦3Ù¿Ý ÇÝã Ï3Ù áãÇÝã§ 1ÇñùáñáßáõÙÁ »õ μ3Ý3Ïó3ÛÇÝ ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óÁ ØÇÝëÏÇ ËÙμÇ ßñç3Ý3ÏÝ»ñÇó 1áõñë μ»ñ»- Éáõ ÷áñÓ»ñÁ, áñáÝù áõÕÕáõ3Í »Ý ÙÇçÝáñ1Ý»ñÇ ç3Ýù»ñÁ ï3å3É»ÉáõÝ§:

4

̧2Ø2êÎàêÆ Ø3⁄4æ êä2ÜÜàô2Ì oÜ Ø2Âàêo2Ü ÀÜî2ÜÆøÆ oðoø

2Ü ̧2ØÜoð

̧3Ù3ëÏáëÇ Öáå3ñ Ã3Õ3Ù3ëÇ Ù¿ç 3ÝÍ3ÝûÃ å3ÛÙ3ÝÝ»ñáõ ï3Ï ú·áëïáë 28-ÇÝ ëå3ÝÝáõ3Í »Ý »ñ»ù Ñ3Û»ñ: 2Ûë Ù3ëÇÝ ÏÁ Û3ÛïÝ¿ ¦2ñÙ»Ý÷ñ3⁄4ë§ ·áñÍ3Ï3ÉáõÃÇõÝÁ, ÛÕáõÙ Ï3ï3ñ»Éáí ̧3Ù3ëÏá- ëÇ Ð3Ûáó 3é3çÝáñ13ñ3ÝÇÝ: 2é3çÝáñ13ñ3Ý¿Ý Û3ÛïÝ3Í »Ý, áñ ëå3ÝÝáõ3Í »Ý 49-3Ù»3Û ä»ïñáë, 46-3Ù»3Û ¶¿áñ· »õ 22-3Ù»3Û È»õáÝ Ø3Ãáë»3ÝÝ»ñÁ: 2é3çÝáñ13ñ3ÝÁ ÏÁ ç3Ý3Û 3ÝáÝó 1Ç»ñÁ Ñ3- Ï3Ù3ñïáõÃ»3Ý ï3ñ3Íù¿Ý Ñ3Ý»É:

̧3Ù3ëÏáëÇ Ñ3Û»ñÁ ÏÁ ï»Õ»Ï3óÝ»Ý, áñ ëå3ÝÝáõ3Í Ñ3Û»ñáõ Ù3ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÁ Ñ3Ï3Ù3ñïáõÃ»3Ý ï3ñ3Íù¿Ý 1»é ã»Ý Ñ3Ýáõ3Í: 2ñ1¿Ý 48 Å3Ù ¿ ëå3ÝÝáõ3Í Ñ3Û»ñáõ 3ÝÏ»Ý13Ý Ù3ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÁ ÷áÕáóÇ Ù¿ç »Ý, ë3Ï3ÛÝ Ñ3Û Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõóÇãÝ»ñÁ Ï3ñ»ÉÇáõÃÇõÝ ã»Ý áõÝ»ó3Í Ùûï»Ý3Éáõ 3ÝáÝó:

2ÝóÝáÕ ß3μ3Ã3í»ñçÇÝ, Ð3É¿åÇ Üáñ ¶ÇõÕ Ã3Õ3Ù3ëÇÝ Ù¿ç ÇÝÏ3Í ÑñÃÇéÇ ÙÁ μ»ÏáñÝ»ñ¿Ý ëå3ÝÝáõ3Í ¿ 2ÉÇÝ ØË×»3Ý 3ÝáõÝáí Ñ3Û »ñÇï3ë3ñ1áõÑÇ ÙÁ:

ÀÝ11ÇÙ31ÇñÝ»ñáõ »õ Ï3é3í3ñ3Ï3Ý 1⁄2ûñù»ñáõ ÙÇç»õ êáõñÇáÛ Ù¿ç ëÏë3Í μ3ËáõÙÝ»ñáõ Ñ»ï»- õ3Ýùáí ÙÇÝã»õ 3Ûëûñ 1⁄2áÑáõ3Í Ð3Û»ñáõ ÃÇõÁ Ñ3ë3Í ¿ 14-Ç:

Ø»Í ÃÇõáí ëáõñÇ3óÇÝ»ñ ÏÁ Éù»Ý »ñÏÇñÁ »õ ÏÁ Û3ÛïÝáõÇÝ 3ÛÉ »ñÏÇñÝ»ñáõ Ù¿ça ÷3Ëëï3Ï3ÝÇ Ï3ñ·3íÇ×3Ïáí: ì»ñçÇÝ ßñç3ÝÇÝ »ñÏÇñÁ ÏÁ Éù»Ý Ý3»õ ï»ÕÇ Ñ3Û Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇ 3Ý13ÙÝ»ñÁ:

oôðàä2Î2Ü ØÆàôÂÆôÜÀ Ð2Ú2êî2ÜÆÜ îð2Ø2 ̧ð2Ì 3⁄4 60 ØÆÈÆàÜ

oôðú

oõñáå3Ï3Ý ØÇáõÃÇõÝÁ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇÝ 60 ÙÇÉÇáÝ »õñû åÇïÇ ïñ3Ù31ñ¿‘ »ñÏñ¿Ý Ý»ñë 13ï3Ç- ñ3õ3Ï3Ý μ3ñ»÷áËáõÙÝ»ñáõ, ïÝï»ë3Ï3Ý Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý »õ oõñáå3ÛÇ ØÇáõÃ»3Ý áõ Ð3Û3ë- ï3ÝÇ ÙÇç»õ Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ:

oõñáå3Ï3Ý Û3ÝÓÝ3ÅáÕáíÁ 2ñ»õ»É»3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñáõÃ»3Ý Íñ3·ÇñÇ ßñç3·ÇÍ¿Ý Ý»ñë ÁÝ1áõÝ3Í ¿ 2012 Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÇ Ñ3Ù3ñ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ï3ñ»Ï3Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ Íñ3·ÇñÁ, áñ å¿ïù ¿ 3ñ3·3óÝ¿ »ñÏñ¿Ý Ý»ñë 13ï3Çñ3õ3Ï3Ý μ3ñ»÷áËáõÙÝ»ñÁ »õ oõñáå3ÛÇ ØÇáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï »ñÏÏáÕÙ Û3ñ3μ»ñáõ- ÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ 1⁄23ñ·3óÙ3Ý, ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý »õ ïÝï»ë3Ï3Ý 3õ»ÉÇ ËáñÁ Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ å3- ñ3ñï ÑáÕ ëï»ÕÍ¿:

¦Üáñ 3ç3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ Ý»ñ3é¿ 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ Ï3ñ»õáñ Ñ3ëï3ïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ í»ñ3å3ïñ3ëï- Ù3Ý Ï3ñ»ÉÇáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ, Ù3ëÝ3·Çï3Ï3Ý ËáñÑáõñ1Ý»ñ, Çñ3õ3μ3ÝÝ»ñáõ, 13ï3õáñÝ»ñáõ »õ 13ï3- Ë31⁄2Ý»ñáõ 1åñáóÝ»ñáõ ÑÇÙÝáõÙ, ÇÝã áñ Çñ í»ñçÝ3Ï3Ý 3ñ1ÇõÝùáí å¿ïù ¿ ëï»ÕÍ¿ 3ÝÏ3Ë, Ã3÷3ÝóÇÏ 3ñ13ñ313ïáõÃÇõÝ, áñ å¿ïù ¿ Í3é3Û¿ Ñ3Û ÅáÕáíáõñ1ÇÝ§,- Áëáõ3Í ¿ oõñ3ÙÇáõÃ»3Ý å3ßïûÝ3Ï3Ý Ï3Ûù¿çÇÝ íñ3Û:

Ð3ñ3õ3ÛÇÝ ÎáíÏ3ë¿Ý 2ñ»õ»É»3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿Ï 3ÛÉ »ñÏñÇ‘ ìñ3ëï3ÝÇÝ ÝáÛÝå¿ë 60 ÙÇÉÇáÝ »õñû ÏÁ ïñ3Ù31ñáõÇ:

2ïñå¿Û×3ÝÁ oõñáå3Ï3Ý ØÇáõÃ»Ý¿Ý Ýáõ31⁄2 ýÇÝ3Ýë3Ï3Ý 3ç3ÏóáõÃÇõÝ åÇïÇ ëï3Ý3Û, ù3ÝÇ áñ 3Û1 »ñÏÇñÁ, Ç ï3ñμ»ñáõÃÇõÝ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ »õ ìñ3ëï3ÝÇ, oØ-Ç Ñ»ï 1»é ã¿ ëÏë3Í Êáñ »õ Ñ3Ù3- å3ñ÷3Ï 31⁄23ï 3é»õïáõñÇ ·ûïÇ ëï»ÕÍ»Éáõ ßáõñç μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ »õ 2ïñå¿Û×3ÝÇÝ ïñ3Ù31- ñáõáÕ 19.5 ÙÇÉÇáÝ »õñáÝ Ïÿû·ï3·áñÍáõÇ 3ñ13ñ313ïáõÃ»3Ý »õ ·3ÕÃ3Ï3Ý3Ï3Ý áÉáñïÝ»ñáõÝ:

ÂàôðøÆ2ÚàôØ ê2êàôÜÆ Ð2ÚoðÆ ØÆàôÂÆôÜÀ ̧ÆØàôØ 3⁄4

ÜoðÎ2Ú2òðoÈa Îàâ 2ÜoÈàì ä2Ðä2ÜoÈ Ð2ÚÎ2Î2Ü oÎoÔoòÆÜoðÀ

ÂáõñùÇ3ÛáõÙ ê3ëáõÝÇ Ñ3Û»ñÇ ÙÇáõÃ»3Ý Ý3Ë3·3Ñ 21⁄2Ç1⁄2 ̧3ÕçÁÝ Ø3ñáõÃ3 ë3ñÇ ·3·3ÃÇÝ ·ïÝáõáÕ êáõñμ 2ëïáõ3Í3ÍÇÝ »Ï»Õ»óáõ 1¿Ù Çñ3Ï3Ý3óáõ3Í áïÝÓ·áõÃÇõÝÇó Û»ïáÛ 1ÇÙáõÙ ¿ Ý»ñÏ3- Û3óñ»É ́3ÃÙ3ÝÇ (ê3ëáõÝ) Ý3Ñ3Ý·3å»ï3ñ3Ýa Ïáã 3Ý»Éáí å3Ñå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ï3Ï 3éÝ»É Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ:

ÆÝãå¿ë ï»Õ»Ï3óÝáõÙ ¿ Ãáõñù3Ï3Ý IHA Éñ3ïáõ3Ï3Ý ·áñÍ3Ï3ÉáõÃÇõÝÁ, 21⁄2Ç1⁄2 ̧3ÕçÁÝ Çñ 1Ç- ÙáõÙáõÙ Ýß»É ¿, áñ í»ñçÇÝ ßñç3ÝáõÙ áñáß ë31ñÇãÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ́3ÃÙ3ÝÇ Ý3Ñ3Ý·áõÙ ·ïÝáõáÕ Ñ3ÛÏ3- Ï3Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ Û3ñÓ3ÏÙ3Ý »Ý »ÝÃ3ñÏõáõÙ: ¦ì»ñçÇÝ 1¿åùÁa ê3ëáõÝÇ Ø3ñáõÃ3 ë3ñÇ êáõñμ 2ëïáõ3Í3ÍÇÝ »Ï»Õ»óáõ 3õ»ñáõÙÝ ¿ñ: 2ÝÑñ3Å»ßï ¿, áñ ê3ëáõÝÇ ßñç3ÝÇ Ø»ß»ÉÇ ·ÇõÕÇ Ñ»ï»õáõÙ ·ïÝáõáÕ »õ 365 ë»Ý»3Ï áõÝ»óáÕ ä»ïñáë 2é3ù»3ÉÇ í3ÝùÁ »õë å3Ñå3ÝáõÇ: 2õ»ÉÇ í3Õ 1ÇÙáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óñ»É Ý3Ñ3Ý·3å»ï3ñ3Ýa å3Ñå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ï3Ï 3éÝ»Éáõ ê3ëáõÝÇ è»ßÙÇÏ ·ÇõÕÇ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý »Ï»Õ»óáõ, øá1⁄2ÉáõùÇ ßñç3ÝÇ 2ùã3ùÉÁ ·ÇõÕáõÙ ·ïÝáõáÕ êáõñμ 2ëïáõ3Í3ÍÇÝ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ:

5

Ø»Ýù ã»Ýù Ñ3õ3ïáõÙ, áñ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ ù3Ý1õáõÙ »Ý ·3ÝÓ áñáÝáÕÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó: Ø»Ýù áñå¿ë Ñ3- Ù3ÛÝù ïáõÅáõ»É »Ýù, ãáõÝ»Ýù 3ÕûÃ3ï»ÕÇ: 2Û1 μáÉáñ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ ·ñ3Ýóáõ3Í »Ý: Èá1⁄23ÝÇ Ñ3Ù3- Ó3ÛÝ3·ñÇ 42-ñ1 Ûû1áõ3ÍÇ 3 Ï¿ïÇ Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝa Ãáõñù3Ï3Ý Ï3é3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÷áùñ3Ù3ëÝáõ- ÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ å3ïÏ3ÝáÕ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÝ áõ Ñá·»õáñ ÙÇõë Ï3éáÛóÝ»ñÁ å¿ïù ¿ å3Ñå3ÝÇ: 2ÝÑñ3Å»ßï ¿, áñ ÂáõñùÇ3ÛÇ Ñ3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝÁ Ï3ï3ñÇ Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ3·ñÇ 1ñáÛÃÝ»ñÁ§,- 3ë»É ¿ 21⁄2Ç1⁄2 ̧3ÕçÁÝ:

§1⁄4àô2ðÂÜàò¦ ú ̧2Î2Ú2ÜàôØ Ð2Ü¶ðàô2Ü2Ì êÆðÆ2Ð2Ú ÀÜî2ÜÆøÀ oî ÎþàôÔ2ðÎàôÆ

ÐÐ áëïÇÏ3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ å3ñ1⁄23μ3- ÝáõÙ ¿ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óñ»É ¦1⁄4áõ3ñÃÝáó§ û13- Ý3õ3Ï3Û3ÝÇ ÃéÇãùÇ å3ïñ3ëïáõáÕ áõÕ»õáñÝ»ñÇ Ñ3Ù3ñ Ý3Ë3ï»ëáõ3Í ÷3Ï ï3ñ3ÍùáõÙ 3ñ1¿Ý Ù¿Ï ûñ Ñ3Ý·ñ- áõ3Ý3Í ëÇñÇ3Ñ3Û áõÃ Ñá·3Ýáó ÁÝï3- ÝÇùÇ ßáõñç ëï»ÕÍáõ3Í Çñ3íÇ×3ÏÇ í»- ñ3μ»ñ»3É »õ Ýß»É, áñ ÐÐ Å3Ù3Ý3Í ÁÝ- ï3ÝÇùÇ 9 3Ý13ÙÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý Ý»ñÏ3Û3ó- ñ»É 31⁄2·áõÃ»3Ùμ Ñ3Û ÉÇÝ»Éáõ Ñ3Ý·3- Ù3ÝùÁ ÑÇÙÝ3õáñáÕ áñ»õ¿ ÷3ëï3- ÃáõÕÃ:

ÚÇß»óÝ»Ýù, áñ Tert.am-Á 3Ý1ñ3- 13ñÓ»É ¿ñ 3Ûë ÁÝï3ÝÇùÇÝ, áñÇ í»ñ3- μ»ñ»3É ê÷ÇõéùÇ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý 3ß- Ë3ï3Ï31⁄2ÙÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñ üÇñ1áõë 1⁄43- ù3ñ»3ÝÁ Û3ÛïÝ»É ¿ñ, áñ ëï»ÕÍáõ3Í ¿ ¦å3ï3ÛÇÝ Çñ3íÇ×3Ï§:

àëïÇÏ3ÝáõÃ»3Ý å3ñ1⁄23μ3Ý- Ù3Ùμa Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ ¦úï3ñ»ñÏñ3óÇÝ»ñÇ Ù3ëÇÝ§ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃ»3Ý ûñ¿ÝùÇ 9-ñ1 Ûû1áõ3- ÍÇa êÇñÇ3Ý ÝáÛÝå¿ë ÁÝ1·ñÏáõ3Í ¿ 3ÛÝ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ó3ÝÏáõÙ,áñáÝó ù3Õ3ù3óÇÝ»ñÁ ÙáõïùÇ íÇ1⁄23 ëï3- Ý3Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ Ï3ñáÕ »Ý 1ÇÙ»É ÙÇ3ÛÝ ûï3ñ»ñÏñ»3Û å»ïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ ÐÐ 1Çõ3Ý3·Çï3Ï3Ý Í3é3Ûáõ- Ã»3Ý Ù3ñÙÇÝÝ»ñ »õ ÑÇõå3ïáë3Ï3Ý ÑÇÙÝ3ñÏÝ»ñ, ÇëÏ ÝáÛÝ ûñ¿ÝùáõÙ Ï3ï3ñáõ3Í ÷á÷áËáõÃÇõÝÝ»- ñÁ, áñáÝó Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ a Ýßáõ3Í å»ïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ 31⁄2·áõÃ»3Ùμ Ñ3Û ù3Õ3ù3óÇÝ»ñÁ ÐÐ ë3ÑÙ3Ý3ÛÇÝ 3ÝóÙ3Ý Ï¿ï»ñáõÙ Ï3ñáÕ »Ý ëï3Ý3É 3é3Ýó Ññ3õ¿ñÇ ÙáõïùÇ íÇ1⁄23, í»ñ3μ»ñáõÙ ¿ ÙÇ3ÛÝ 31⁄2·áõ-

Ã»3Ùμ Ñ3Û»ñÇÝ: ÐÐ Ï3é3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ 2012 Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÇ ÚáõÉÇëÇ 26-Ç ÃÇõ 941-Ü áñáßÙ3Ùμ ë3ÑÙ3Ý»É ¿ 31⁄2·áõÃ»3Ùμ

Ñ3Û Ñ3Ý1Çë3Ý3Éáõ Ñ3Ý·3Ù3ÝùÁ ÑÇÙÝ3õáñáÕ ÷3ëï3ÃÕÃ»ñÇ ó3ÝÏÁ: ̧ñ3Ýù »Ýa 31⁄2·áõÃ»3Ùμ Ñ3Û ÉÇÝ»Éáõ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É ÝßáõÙ å3ñáõÝ3ÏáÕ 3ÝÓÝ3·Çñ Ï3Ù ÙÇç31⁄2·3ÛÝûñ¿Ý ×3Ý3ãáõ3Í‘ 3ÝÓÁ Ñ3ëï3- ïáÕ ×3Ùμáñ13Ï3Ý ÷3ëï3ÃáõÕÃ, 31⁄2·áõÃ»3Ùμ Ñ3Û ÉÇÝ»Éáõ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É ÝßáõÙ å3ñáõÝ3ÏáÕ ÍÝÝ1»3Ý íÏ3Û3Ï3Ý, 31⁄2·áõÃ»3Ùμ Ñ3Û ÉÇÝ»Éáõ Ñ3Ý·3Ù3ÝùÁ ÑÇÙÝ3õáñáÕ 3ÛÉ ÷3ëï3ÃáõÕÃ‘ Ñ3ë- ï3ïáõ3Í ûï3ñ»ñÏñ»3Û å»ïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ ÐÐ 1Çõ3Ý3·Çï3Ï3Ý Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõóãáõÃ»3Ý Ï3Ù ÑÇõå3- ïáë3Ï3Ý ÑÇÙÝ3ñÏÇ ÏáÕÙÇó:

Üß»Ýù, áñ û13Ý3Ï3õ3Ï3Û3ÝáõÙ 3å3ëï3Ý3Í ùáÛñ»ñÇ »Õμ3ÛñÁa Ø»ëñáå ÐÇÝ1á»3ÝÁ, Blognews- ÇÝ ¦ø3ÝÇ± ·ñáß 3ñÅ¿ Ññ3õ¿ñù1 ïÇÏÇ°Ý Ðñ3Ýáõß, Ï3Ù Ã¿ ÇÝãå¿ë êÇñÇ3ÛÇó ·3ÕÃ3Í Ñ3Û ÁÝï3ÝÇùÇÝ û13Ý3õ3Ï3Û3ÝÇó 3ÝÙÇç3å¿ë Ñ»ï áõÕ3ñÏ»óÇÝ§ í»ñï3éáõÃ»3Ý Ý»ñùáÛ ï»Õ»Ï3óñ»É ¿, áñ û13Ý3õ3- Ï3Û3ÝÇ ¦Ñ3Û ·»ñÇÝ»ñÇ Ù¿ç Çñ Ñ3ñ31⁄23ï ùáÛñ»ñÝ »Ý, áñáÝóa 3Ù»Ý3Ù»ÍÁ 8 ï3ñ»Ï3Ý, 3Ù»Ý3÷áùñÁ‘ 9 3Ùë»Ï3Ý 5 »ñ»Ë3Ý»ñÇ Ñ»ï, áñáÝó, Áëï ë÷Çõéù3Ñ3ÛÇa Ññ3Ñ3Ý·áõ»É ¿ Ñ»ï áõÕ3ñÏ»É í3Õáõ3Û ÃéÇã- ùáí:

¦ìÇ1⁄23 ãëï3ó3Ý »ñÏáõ ùáÛñÇÏÝ»ñë Ñ3Û ÉÇÝ»Éáí Ñ3Ý1»ñÓ, »õ ÇÙ Ù3Ù3Ý, áñ 40 ï3ñÇ ¿ Ñ3Û ïÕ3- Ù3ñ1áõ ÏÇÝ ¿: êÏ1⁄2μáõÙ 3ë»óÇÝ‘ 3å3óáõó¿ù, áñ Ñ3Û ¿ù, áõ Çñ3Ýù »Ï»Õ»óáõÙ ÏÝùáõ3Í »Ý, ÙÏñïáõÃ»3Ý μáÉáñ ÷3ëï3ÃÕÃ»ñÁ ý3ùëáí áõÕ3ñÏ»óÇÝù oñ»õ3Ý, Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý 1»ëå3Ý3ïáõÝÝ ¿É Û3ïáõÏ ̧3Ù3ëÏá- ëÇó 1⁄23Ý·3Ñ3ñ»É ¿ áõ ·ñáõÃÇõÝ ¿ áõÕ3ñÏ»É, áñ 3Ûë ïáõ»3É Ù3ñ1ÇÏ å3ïÏ3ÝáõÙ »Ý êÇñÇ3ÛÇ Ñ3ÛÏ3- Ï3Ý Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇÝ »õ Ñ3Û »Ý§:

Ø»ëñáåÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ Ñ3ÛñÁ‘ Ä3Ý Ð»Ý1»3ÝÁ »õ Ù3ÛñÁ‘ È3ÇÉ3 ØÇñáÝ Ñ3Ý1Çë3ÝáõÙ »Ý êÇñÇ3ÛÇ Ñ3Û Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇ 3Ù»Ý3Ù»Í Ñáí3Ý3õáñÝ»ñÇó Ù¿ÏÁ, 3Ù¿Ý ï3ñÇ Ýñ3Ýù Çñ»Ýó Ñáí3Ý3õáñáõÃ»3Ý ï3Ï »Ý 3éÝáõÙ 10-Çó 3õ»É Ñ3Û áõë3ÝáÕÝ»ñÇa Ñá·3Éáí Ýñ3Ýó μáÉáñ Ï3ñÇùÝ»ñÁ: ÆÝùÁa ¶»ñÙ3ÝÇ3ÛáõÙ 3å- ñáÕ Ø»ëñáåÝ ¿É 3Ù¿Ý ï3ñÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÙ ¿ Ñ3Ù3Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý 1ñ3Ù3Ñ3õ3ùÇÝ:

̧ÇÙ»Éáí ê÷ÇõéùÇ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñÇÝ, ëÇñÇ3Ñ3ÛÁ 1ÇÙáõÙ ¿. ¦ ̧áõù ã»±ù, áñ 3ÙμáÕç ûñÁ TV-áí Û3Ûï3- ñ3ñáõÙ, áñ Ù»ñ 1éÝ»ñÁ μ3ó »Ý ê÷ÇõéùÇÝ: 2Ûë ê÷ÇõéùÁ, áñ ÙÇßï Ó»éù ¿ñ Ù»ÏÝ»É Ó»1⁄2 ÙáõÃ áõ Ë3õ3ñ ï3ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ: ÆëÏ ÑÇÙ3 Ù»ñáÝó 3é3Ýó áñ»õ¿ μ3ó3ïñáõÃ»3Ý Ù»ñÅáõÙ ¿ù, »õ ëïáñ3μ3ñ í»ñ3μ»ñõáõÙ

êáõñÇ3Ñ3Û ÁÝï3ÝÇùÝ»ñ ÏÁ ß3ñáõÝ3Ï»Ý Å3Ù3Ý»É Ð3Û3ëï3Ý

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Ýñ3Ýó: Ø»Ýù Ó»1⁄23ÝÇó μ3Ý ãáõÝ»Ýù å3Ñ3Ýç»Éáõ, ù3ÝÇ áñ 1ñ3 Ï3ñÇùÁ ãáõÝ»Ýù, 3ÛÉ Ù»ñáÝù áõ1⁄2»ó»É »Ý ÙÇ3ÛÝ Ù¿Ï 3Ùëáí ·3É Ð3Û3ëï3Ý Ñ3Ý·ëï3Ý3Éáõ áõ Ù»ñ ÙûïÇ 3Ýáñáß íÇ×3ÏÇó ÙÇ áñáß Å3Ù3- Ý3Ï 3Ýç3ïáõ»É áõ Ë3Ë3Ý1áõ»É§:

Ü3Ù3Ï3·ÇñÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ Ñ3ñ31⁄23ïÝ»ñÁ Ð3Û3ëï3Ý »Ý »Ï»É ÂáõñùÇ3ÛÇó, ù3ÝÇ áñ Ð3É¿åáõÙ ÑÇ- Ù3 3Ñ3õáñ íÇ×3Ï ¿, áõ Çñ»Ýó »ñ»Ë3Ý»ñÇÝ ãíï3Ý·»Éáõ Ýå3ï3Ïáí, ó3ÝÏ3ó»É »Ý ÂáõñùÇ3Ûáí Ñ3ë- Ý»É Ð3Û3ëï3Ý:

Ø»ëñáåÁ Û3õ»ÉáõÙ ¿, áñ 3é3çÇÝ 3Ý·3Ù ¿ ï»ëÝáõÙ, áñ Ù3ñ1Ï3Ýó ¦1»åáñï§ 3Ý»Éáõa 3ñï3ùë»- Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ Ýñ3ÝóÇó ÷áÕ »Ý í»ñóÝáõÙ, ÇÝãÁ »Õ»É ¿ Çñ Ñ3ñ31⁄23ïÝ»ñÇ 1¿åùáõÙa1400 »õñáÛÇ ã3÷áí:

§Ð2ðêÜ2ø2ðÆ¦ ¶àðÌÆ Ü2Ê2øÜÜàôÂÆôÜÜ ÀÜÂ2òoÈ 3⁄4 ́21⁄4Ø2ÂÆô

Îàäî2¶àÚÜ Ê2ÊîàôØÜoðàì

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¦øñ¿3Ï3Ý ·áñÍÇ ÝÇõÃ»ñáõÙ 3éÏ3Û »Ý ÷3ëï»ñ, áñáÝù óáÛó »Ý ï3ÉÇë, áñ í»ó Ù»Õ31ñ- »3ÉÝ»ñÇó ÑÇÝ·Á, μ3óÇ Ù3ïáõóáÕÇó, 3Û1 ûñÝ áõÕ»Ïó»É »Ý èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇÝa oñ»õ3- ÝÇó ê»õ3Ý ·Ý3Éáõ »õ í»ñ313éÝ3Éáõ ×3Ý3å3ñÑÇÝ: ê3 3å3óáõóáõÙ ¿, áñ Ñ3Ï3é3Ï ·áñ- ÍáõÙ 3éÏ3Û Ï»ÕÍ å3ÛÙ3Ý3·ñ»ñÇ »õ ÐÐ áëïÇÏ3ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ú3ïáõÏ Ï3ñ»õáñáõÃ»3Ý ·áñÍ»ñÇ ùÝÝã3Ï3Ý í3ñãáõÃ»3Ý å»ï ì3Ñ3·Ý Ú3ñáõÃÇõÝ»3ÝÇ åÝ1áõÙÝ»ñÇa 3Ûë Ù3ñ1ÇÏ »Õ»É »Ý èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ 3ÝÓÝ3Ï3Ý ÃÇÏÝ31⁄2ûñÇ 3Ý13ÙÝ»ñÁ: àõëïÇ, 3Ûë Ï3å3ÏóáõÃ»3Ùμ ùÝÝã3Ï3Ý ËÙμÇÝ ÙÇçÝáñ1»É ¿ÇÝù áñå¿ë Ï3ëÏ3Í»3É Ý»ñ·ñ3õ»É èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇÝ »õ å3ïß3× Ñ3ñó3ùÝÝáõÃ»3Ý »ÝÃ3ñÏ»É Ýñ3Ý, ù3ÝÇ áñ Ýñ3 »õ ùÝÝÇã ØÏñïã»3ÝÇ Ñ3ñó3ùÝ- ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ, 3õ»ÉÇ ß3ï Ùï»ñÙÇÏ 1⁄2ñáÛó ¿ ÛÇß»óÝáõÙ§,- 3ë3ó îÇ·ñ3Ý o·áñ»3ÝÁ »õ 3õ»É3óñ»ó, áñ Ç å3ï3ëË3Ý Çñ»Ýó ÙÇçÝáñ1áõÃ»3Ýa ùÝÝÇãÁ Ýß»É ¿, áñ ûñ¿Ýë·ÇñùÁ ¦áñå¿ë Ï3ëÏ3Í»3É Ý»ñ·ñ3õ»Éáõ§ Ñ3ëÏ3óáõÃÇõÝ ãÇ Ý3Ë3ï»ëáõÙ:

ö3ëï3μ3Ý ÈáõëÇÝ¿ Ú3Ïáμ»3ÝÝ 3õ»É3óñ»ó, áñ μ3óÇ 3Û1, »Õ»É »Ý Ñ»é3Ëûë31⁄2ñáÛóÝ»ñ èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ »õ ÃÇÏÝ3å3Ñ Üáñ3Ûñ Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ ÙÇç»õ, ÇÝãÇ í»ñÍ3ÝáõÙÁ Ã»- ñÇ ¿ Ï3ï3ñáõ»É. ¦ÂÇÏÝ3å3ÑÝ»ñÝ 3é3Ýó Çñ»Ýó ïÇñáç ÇÙ3óáõÃ»3Ý áñ»õ¿ ù3ÛÉ ã»Ý Ï3ñáÕ Ï3ï3ñ»É§:

Ü3, ÝÏ3ï»óa èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÁ Ý3»õ áõÝ»ó»É ¿ ¦2ñÙ»Ýî»É§-Ç Ñ»é3Ëûë3Ñ3Ù3ñ, áñáí Ï3ï3ñáõ3Í Ëûë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ í»ñÍ3Ýáõ3Í ã»Ý:

ö3ëï3μ3Ý îÇ·ñ3Ý o·áñ»3ÝÁ Ýß»ó, áñ ·áñÍÇ ÝÇõÃáõÙ 3éÏ3Û 1Ç3ÏÇ 13ï3μÅßÏ3Ï3Ý ÷áñÓ3ùÝÝáõÃ»3Ý »1⁄2ñ3Ï3óáõÃÇõÝÁ ëË3É ¿. ¦oñ»õáõÙ ¿, áñ ïñáõ»É ¿ 3ÏÝÛ3Ûï ëË3É Ñ»ï»õáõ- ÃÇõÝ, Ã¿ ì3Ñ¿ 2õ»ï»3ÝÁ ëï3ó»É ¿ Í3Ýñ Ù3ñÙÝ3Ï3Ý íÝ3ëáõ3Íù, áñÁ íï3Ý· ¿ Ý»ñÏ3Û3ó- ñ»É Ýñ3 Ï»3ÝùÇ Ñ3Ù3ñ, ïáõ»3É 1¿åùáõÙa Ñ3Ý·»óñ»É ¿ Ù3Ñáõ3Ý§:

o·áñ»3ÝÁ ÷áË3Ýó»ó, áñ ãÑ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ»Éáí 3Ûë Ñ»ï»õáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï, Çñ»Ýù å3Ñ3Ýç»É »Ý Ý3Ë3ùÝÝáõÃÇõÝ Çñ3Ï3Ý3óÝáÕ Ù3ñÙÝÇó Ýß3Ý3Ï»É ÏñÏÝ3ÏÇ Û3ÝÓÝ3ÅáÕáí3ÛÇÝ ÷áñÓ3ùÝ- ÝáõÃÇõÝ, áñå¿ë1⁄2Ç ÑÝ3ñ3õáñ ÉÇÝÇ ·Ý3Ñ3ï»É, Ã¿ ¦ïáõ»3É 1¿åùáõÙ ·áñÍ áõÝ»Ý Ù3Ñáõ3Ý Ñ3Ý·»óñ3Í íÝ3ëáõ3ÍùÝ»ñÇ±, Ã¿± 3Ù¿Ý 1¿åùáõÙ Ï»3ÝùÇ Ñ»ï 3ÝÑ3Ù3ï»Õ»ÉÇ íÝ3ëáõ3Íù- Ý»ñÇ Ñ»ï§:

2ëáõÉÇëÇ 3õ3ñïÇÝ ÷3ëï3μ3ÝÝ»ñÁ Ýß»óÇÝ, áñ ÐÐ Çñ3õ3å3Ñ Ù3ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÇ a 13ï3Ë3- 1⁄2áõÃ»3Ý »õ áëïÇÏ3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ùáÕ3ñÏÙ3Ý 3ÏÝÛ3Ûï ÙÇïáõÙ ï»ëÝ»Éáí, Çñ»Ýù 1⁄2·áõß3ó- ÝáõÙ »Ý, áñ ÙÇÝã»õ í»ñç å3Ûù3ñ»Éáõ »Ý ·áñÍÁ μ3ó3Û3Ûï»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ:

ÚÇß»óÝ»Ýù, áñ ÚáõÝÇëÇ 17-ÇÝ 2Ä å3ï·3Ù3õáñ, Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ýáõïμáÉÇ ý»1»ñ3óÇ3ÛÇ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇÝ å3ïÏ3ÝáÕ ¦Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñ§ é»ëïáñ3Ý3ÛÇÝ Ñ3Ù3ÉÇñáõÙ é31⁄2Ù3Ï3Ý μÅÇßÏ ì3Ñ¿ 2õ»ï»3ÝÝ áõ Çñ ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÁ Í»ÍÇ ¿ÇÝ »ÝÃ3ñÏáõ»É 3Ýíï3Ý·áõÃ»3Ý 3ßË3ï3ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó: 35-3Ù»3Û 2õ»ï»3ÝÁ ·ÉËáõÕ»Õ3ÛÇÝ íÝ3ëáõ3Íù ¿ñ ëï3ó»É, »Ý- Ã3ñÏáõ»É »ñÏáõ íÇñ3Ñ3ïáõÃ»3Ý, ë3Ï3ÛÝ Ýñ3 Ï»3ÝùÝ 3Û1å¿ë ¿É ãÛ3çáÕáõ»ó ÷ñÏ»É:

7

2ð2Ø ê2ð¶êo2ÜÀa Ü2Ê2¶2ÐÆ ÀÜîðàôÂÆôÜÜoðàôØ

¦Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝ§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ å3ïñ3ëïõáõÙ ¿ 3ÏïÇõ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃÇõÝ áõÝ»- Ý3É 2013Ã. Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ë3- Ï3ÛÝ ÇÝã Ï3ñ·3íÇ×3Ïáí, 1»é ãÇ áñáß»É:

¦oë Ï3ñáÕ »Ù 1⁄2ÇÝáõáñ ¿É ÉÇÝ»É, Ï3ñáÕ »Ù Ññ3Ù3Ý3ï3ñ ¿É ÉÇÝ»É§,- ¦21+§-Ç Ñ»ï 1⁄2ñáÛ- óáõÙ 3ë3ó ¦Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝ§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ý3Ë3·3Ñ 2ñ3Ù ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ:

2é3çÇÏ3ÛáõÙ ¦Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝÁ§ å3ï- ñ3ëïõáõÙ ¿ Ñ3Ù3·áõÙ3ñÇ. ¦Ü3Ë3ï»ëõáõÙ ¿, áñ 3ÛÝ ï»ÕÇ ÏÿáõÝ»Ý3Û ÙÇÝã»õ ê»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ í»ñç§:

Â¿»õ 3Ûë å3ÑÇÝ å3ñáÝ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ 1»é ãÇ ï»ëÝáõÙ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ Çñ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ó»õÁ, μ3Ûó Ëáëï3ÝáõÙ ¿.

¦oÃ¿ ÉÇÝÇ 3ÛÝåÇëÇ Çñ3íÇ×3Ï, áñ ÇÙ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ Ñ3ë3ñ3ÏáõÃ»3Ý Ùûï ÛáÛë, ÷á÷áËáõÃ»3Ý ÑÝ3ñ3õáñáõÃÇõÝ Ïÿ3é3ç3óÝÇ, »ë ÇÙ å3ñïùÁ ÏÁ Ñ3Ù3ñ»Ù ÇÙ Ã»ÏÝ3ÍáõÃ»3Ùμ Ù3ëÝ3Ïó»ÉÁ: ø3Õ3- ù3Ï3Ý Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ ãÇ Ï3ñáÕ »ñÏñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»óáÕ ÝÙ3Ý Ï3ñ»õáñ ·áñÍáÕáõÃ»3ÝÁ ãÙ3ëÝ3Ïó»É: ä3ÑÁ ÏÁ ·3Û, »ë 3õ»ÉÇ Ûëï3Ï Ïÿ3ë»Ù ÇÙ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ù3ëÇÝ§:

Ð2Î-Ç 1áõñë ·3Éáõó Û»ïáÛ, μ3õ3Ï3Ý Å3Ù3Ý3Ï ¿ 3Ýó»É, ë3Ï3ÛÝ ¦Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝ§ Ïáõë3Ï- óáõÃ»3Ý 3é3çÝáñ1Á Çñ»Ýó Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃ»3ÝÁ 3õ»É3óÝ»Éáõ áãÇÝã ãáõÝÇ: ¦Ä3Ù3Ý3ÏÁ óáÛó ÏÁ ï3Û, áí ¿ñ ×Çß1§,-3ë3ó å3ñáÝ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ:

ÆÝã í»ñ3μ»ñáõÙ Ð2Î 3Ý13Ù áñáß áõÅ»ñÇ 3ÛÝ Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, Ã¿ 3ÝÏ3Ë Ýñ3ÝÇó, áñ áñáß áõÅ»ñ Éù»óÇÝ ÎáÝ·ñ¿ëÇ ß3ñù»ñÁ, ÙÇ»õÝáÛÝ ¿ Ùûï 3å3·3ÛáõÙ Ýñ3Ýó ×3Ý3å3ñÑÝ»ñÁ Ë3ãáõ»- Éáõ »Ý, 3å3 2ñ3Ù ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ áã Ñ»ñùáõÙ »õ áã ¿É Ñ3ëï3ïáõÙ ¿ Ýñ3Ýó ï»ë3Ï¿ïÁ. ¦ ̧3 3Û1 áõ- Å»ñÇ Çñ3õáõÝùÝ ¿: oë Ï3ñáÕ »Ù 3ë»É, áñ Ð2Î-áõÙ Ï3Ý ÙÇ ß3ñù ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý áõÅ»ñ, áñáÝó Ñ»ï ¦Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝÁ§ Éáõñç ×3Ý3å3ñÑ ¿ 3Ýó»É ÙÇÝã»õ ÎáÝ·ñ¿ëÇ Ó»õ3õáñáõÙ: ø3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý 13ßïáõÙ 3Û1 Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ù»ñ μ3ñ»Ï3ÙÝ»ñÝ »Ý, »õ Ù»Ýù Ýñ3Ýó Ñ»ï Ùñó3Ïó»Éáõ ËÝ1Çñ ãáõÝ»Ýù: Ø»Ýù ÙÇ3ëÇÝ å3Ûù3ñ»Éáõ ËÝ1Çñ áõÝ»Ýù§:

ä3ñáÝ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ áñ»õ¿ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý áõÅÇ 3ÝáõÝ ãÝß»ó. ¦Ø»Ýù Ñ3Ïáõ3Í »Ýù Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3Ïó»É μáÉáñ 31⁄2ÝÇõ ÁÝ11ÇÙ31Çñ áõÅ»ñÇ Ñ»ï, áíù»ñ ÅáÕáíñ1Ç 3é3ç 3é3Ýó Ã3ùÝáõ»Éáõ, 3é3Ýó Û»ïÇÝ Ùïù»ñÇ »õ å3ÛÙ3Ý3õáñáõ3ÍáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ, ·áñÍÁÝÃ3ó »Ý Í3õ3É»É ÇßË3Ý3÷áËáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ§:

¦Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝ§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý 3é3çÝáñ1Ç Ëûëù»ñáía 3Ûë å3ÑÇÝ Çñ»Ýù 1⁄2μ3Õáõ3Í »Ý Ý»ñÏáõë3Ïó3Ï3Ý ËÝ1ÇñÝ»ñáía Çñ»Ýó ï»ÕÝ áõ 1»ñÝ »Ý Ûëï3Ï»óÝáõÙ 2013Ã. Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝ- Ý»ñÇó 3é3ç:

Æ 1¿å, Ñ3Ýñ3Ñ3õ3ùÝ»ñÝ áõ 1⁄23Ý·áõ3Í3ÛÇÝ 3ÛÉ ÙÇçáó3éáõÙÝ»ñÁ å3ñáÝ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ ÇÝùÝ3Ý- å3ï3Ï ãÇ Ñ3Ù3ñáõÙ, ë3Ï3ÛÝ »Ã¿ ÅáÕáíáõñ1Á áñáßÇ 1áõñë ·3É ÷áÕáó. Ëáëï3ÝáõÙ ¿, áñ Ýñ3 ÏáÕùÇÝ ÏÁ ÉÇÝÇ:

§ ́2ð¶2ô2Ö Ð2Ú2êî2Ü¦. Ü2Ê2¶2ÐÆÜ 2æ2ÎòoÈàô

Ð2Ø2ð Ü2Ê2ä2ÚØ2ÜÜoðÆ ìoð2 ́oðo2È

îoÔoÎ2îàôàôÂÆôÜÀ êàôî 3⁄4

2ÛÝ Éáõñ»ñÁ, áñ ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3Ý§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Õ»Ï3í3ñÁ 2013 Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÇÝ Ï3Û3Ý3- ÉÇù Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÇ Ã»ÏÝ3ÍáõÃ»3Ý 3ç3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ 3é3ç31ñ»É ¿ »ñÏáõ Ý3Ë3å3ÛÙ3Ý, Çñ3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3ÝÁ ã»Ý Ñ3Ù3å3ï3ëË3ÝáõÙ: 2Û1 Ù3ëÇÝ NEWS.am-Ç ÃÕÃ3ÏóÇ Ñ»ï 1⁄2ñáÛóáõÙ Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ»É ¿ ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3Ý§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý ËáñÑñ- 13ñ3Ý3Ï3Ý ËÙμ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý ù3ñïáõÕ3ñ Ü3Çñ3 1⁄4áÑñ3μ»3ÝÁ:

Àëï 1⁄4áÑñ3μ»3ÝÇ‘ í»ñçÇÝ Å3Ù3Ý3ÏÝ»ñë Ù3ÙáõÉáõÙ, ¦Ñ3õ3ëïÇ§ 3ÕμÇõñÝ»ñÇÝ íÏ3Û3Ïáã»Éáí, Û3ÛïÝõáõÙ »Ý Ï3Û3Ý3ÉÇù Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3Ý§ Ïáõë3Ïóáõ- Ã»3Ý 3é3çÝáñ1Ç 1ÇñùáñáßÙ3Ý í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É Éáõñ»ñ, ù3Õ3ù3·¿ïÝ»ñÇ Ùï3ó3ÍÇÝ í3ñÏ3ÍÝ»ñ 3Û1 Ã»Ù3Ûáí: ê3Ï3ÛÝ 3Û1 μáÉáñÝ Çñ3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï Ï3å ãáõÝ»Ý: ¦¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇó§ Ý3- Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É Ñ3ñóÇÝ å3ï3ëË3Ý ëï3Ý3Éáõ ÷áñÓ»ñÁ Û3çáÕáõÃÇõÝ ã»Ý áõÝ»Ý3Û: Ø»ñ å3ï3ëË3ÝÁ Ù¿ÏÝ ¿: oñμ ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÁ§ ×ßïÇ Çñ 1ÇñùáñáßáõÙÁ 2013

Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃÇõÝ§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ý3Ë3·3Ñ 2ñ3Ù ê3ñ·ë»3Ý

8

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Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÇÝ Ï3Û3Ý3ÉÇù Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É, 3Û1 Ù3ëÇÝ Ñ3Ù3å3ï3ë- Ë3Ý Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝ Ïÿ3ñáõÇ§, - 3ë»É ¿ 1⁄4áÑñ3μ»3ÝÁ:

Üß»Ýù, áñ Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáÙ ßñç3Ý3éõáõÙ ¿ 3ÛÝ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ, áñ ÏÇñ3ÏÇ ûñÁ »ñÏÇñ í»ñ3- 13ñÓ3Í ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3Ý§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ý3Ë3·3ÑÁ ¶3·ÇÏ Ì3éáõÏ»3ÝÁ Ñ3Ý1Çå»É ¿ Ø3- ëÇëÇ 3ÏïÇõÇëïÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï »õ Ëûë»É ¿ áã ÙÇ3ÛÝ 3Û1 ù3Õ3ùÇ ù3Õ3ù3å»ïÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ, 3ÛÉ»õ Ï3Û3Ý3ÉÇù Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù3ëÇÝ: Ü3 Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ»É ¿, áñ »ñÏáõ Ý3Ë3å3ÛÙ3Ý ¿ 3é3ç31ñ»É Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÇÝ 3ç3Ïó»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ. ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇÝ§ Î3é3í3ñáõÃÇõÝáõÙ Û3ïÏ3óÝ»É ï»Õ»ñÇ 30 ïáÏáëÁ »õ ÷áË»É í3ñã3å»ïÇÝ: ¦oÃ¿ Ý3 Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝÇ ÇÙ å3ÛÙ3ÝÇÝ, 3å3 Ù»Ýù Ýñ3Ý Ïÿ3ç3Ïó»Ýù, »Ã¿ áã, 3å3 »ë 3ÝÓ3Ùμ ÇÙ Ã»ÏÝ3Íáõ- ÃÇõÝÁ Ïÿ3é3ç31ñ»Ù§, - 3ë»É ¿ ¶3·ÇÏ Ì3éáõÏ»3ÝÁa Û3ïáõÏ ÁÝ1·Í»Éáí, áñ ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3- ÝÁ§ Ùï31Çñ ã¿ 3ç3Ïó»É 3ÛÉ Ã»ÏÝ3ÍáõÝ»ñÇ, 3Û1 ÃõáõÙ Ý3»õ èáμ»ñ1 øáã3ñ»3ÝÇÝ Ï3Ù Î3ñ¿Ý Î3- ñ3å»ï»3ÝÇÝ, áñáÝó 3ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ ÝßõáõÙ »Ý áñå¿ë ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ§ Ã»ÏÝ3ÍáõÝ»ñ:

§Ð2Ú2êî2ÜÆ ÀÜ ̧ ̧ÆØàôÂÆôÜÀ Ò¶îàôØ 3⁄4 2ð ̧ÆôÜ2ô3⁄4î ú¶î2¶àðÌoÈ Æð èoêàôðêÜoðÀ Ü2Ê2¶2Ð2Î2Ü ÀÜîðàôÂÆôÜÜoðàôØ¦

2äÐ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý Ù3ëÝ3×ÇõÕÇ ïÝûñ¿Ý 2É»ùë3Ý1ñ Ø3ñÏ3ñáí

ooñÏÏáõë3Ïó3Ï3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ý 3ñ- 1ÇõÝ3õ¿ï ËáñÑñ13ñ3Ý3Ï3Ý Ïáõë3Ïóáõ- ÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ 3éÏ3ÛáõÃÇõÝ ¿ »ÝÃ31ñáõÙ, áñáÝù Çñ3ñ »Ý Û3çáñ1áõÙ ÇßË3ÝáõÃÇõ- ÝáõÙ. Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ 1¿åùáõÙ ãÇ Ï3ñ»ÉÇ Ëû- ë»É »ñÏÏáõë3Ïó3Ï3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Ù3ëÇÝ îÆØ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ 3ñ1ÇõÝùÝ»ñáí: 2Ûë Ù3ëÇÝ NEWS.am-Ç ÃÕÃ3ÏóÇÝ 3ë3ó ù3- Õ3ù3·¿ï, 2äÐ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý Ù3ëÝ3×ÇõÕÇ ïÝûñ¿Ý 2É»ù- ë3Ý1ñ Ø3ñÏ3ñáíÁ‘ 3õ»É3óÝ»Éáí, áñ 3é3çÇÏ3Û îÆØ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ 3ñ1ÇõÝù- Ý»ñáí‘ 3Ûë Ï3Ù 3ÛÝ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ÏÁ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõ»Ý îÆØ-áõÙ »õ 3Ûë Ï3Ù 3ÛÝ ã3÷áí í»ñ3ÑëÏáÕáõÃÇõÝ ÏÁ ëï3- Ý3Ý:

ä3ï3ëË3Ý»Éáí Ñ3ñóÇÝ, Ã¿ ÇÝãáõ îÆØ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ Ð3Û 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÏáÝ·ñ¿ëÁ, ¦Ä3é3Ý·áõÃÇõÝÁ§, ÐÚ ̧-Ý 3Ï- ïÇõáõÃÇõÝ ã»Ý 1ñë»õáñáõÙ, Ø3ñÏ3ñáíÝ

3ë3ó, áñ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý å3Ûù3ñÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ å3Ñ3ÝçáõÙ ¿ Ùßï3Ï3Ý Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃÇõÝ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý ÇÝïñÇ·Ý»ñÇÝ: ¦2ÛÝ, áñ ÁÝ11ÇÙ31Çñ áõÅ»ñÝ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ã»Ý Ù3ëÝ3Ï- óáõÙ, å3ÛÙ3Ý3õáñáõ3Í ¿ Ï3Ù é»ëáõñëÝ»ñÇ μ3ó3Ï3ÛáõÃ»3Ùμ, Ï3Ù 1ñ3Ýó ùÇã ù3Ý3Ïáí, áñáÝù ïáõ»3É Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ó·ïáõÙ »Ý 3ñ1ÇõÝ3õ¿ï û·ï3·áñÍ»É 2013-ÇÝ Ï3Û3Ý3ÉÇù Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ§,-å3ñ1⁄23μ3Ý»ó ÷áñÓ3·¿ïÁ:

Æ å3ï3ëË3Ý 3ÛÝ Ñ3ñóÇ, Ã¿ 3ñ1»ûù ¦ ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ§ 3ÏïÇõáõÃÇõÝÁ »õ Ð2Î- Ç å3ëÇõáõÃÇõÝÁ îÆØ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ ãÇ Ñ3Ý·»óÝÇ Ð2Î-Ç í»ñçÝ3Ï3Ý ÃáõÉ3óÙ3ÝÁ, Ø3ñÏ3ñáíÝ 3ë3ó. ¦â»Ù Ï3ñÍáõÙ, Ã¿ 3é3çÇÏ3Û Ï¿ë ï3ñáõÙ Ð2Î-Á ÏÁ Ñ»é3Ý3Û »ñÏñÇ ù3- Õ3ù3Ï3Ý 3ëå3ñ¿1⁄2Çó, ù3ÝÇ áñ áñáß3ÏÇ ï»Õ ¿ 3ÛÝï»Õ ·ñ3õáõÙ: Ð2Î-Ç ÁÝïñ31⁄23Ý·áõ3ÍÁ 3é3ÝÓÝ3Û3ïáõÏ ¿, »õ 13 3ÛÝ μ3ÝÇ ·ñ3õ3Ï3ÝÝ ¿, áñ ÎÝá·ñ¿ëÁ ãÇ 3ÝÑ»ï3Ý3Û ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý μ»ÙÇó: Æñ Çõñ3Û3ïÏáõÃ»3Ùμ 3ãùÇ ¿ ÁÝÏÝáõÙ Ý3»õ ́ÐÎ-Ç ÁÝïñ31⁄23Ý·áõ3ÍÁ: ê3Ï3ÛÝ Ñ3ñóÝ 3ÛÉ ¿‘ ÇÝãå¿ë Çñ»Ý ÏÁ 1ñë»õáñÇ ́ÐÎ-Ý‘ áñå¿±ë ÇßË3ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ 3ÛÉÁÝïñ3Ýù, Ã¿± Çñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝ11ÇÙáõÃÇõÝ ÐÐÎ-Ç ÝÏ3ïÙ3Ùμ§:

9

ì2ðâ2äoîÆ öàöàÊàôÂo2Ü Ø2 ՍԻՆ Êúê2ÎòàôÂÆôÜÜoðÀ

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ÐÐ í3ñã3å»ï îÇ·ñ3Ý ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃ»3Ý, »õ 3éÑ3ë3ñ3Ï, ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï Ï3åáõ3Í áñ»õ¿ Ñ3ñó »õ Ñ3ñó31ñáõÙ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ð3Ýñ3å»ï3Ï3Ý Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝáõÙ ãÇ ùÝÝ3ñÏáõ»É »õ ûñ3Ï3ñ·áõÙ ãÇ »Õ»É: 2Ûë Ù3ëÇÝ Tert.am-Ç Ñ»ï 1⁄2ñáÛóáõÙ Ýß»ó 2Ä ¦Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ð3Ýñ3å»ï3Ï3Ý Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý§ ËÙμ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý 3Ý13Ù ÚáíÑ3ÝÝ¿ë ê3Ñ3Ï»3ÝÁa 3õ»É3óÝ»- Éáí.¦2é3õ»É »õë, 1ñ3 ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý å3Ñ3ÝçÝ ¿É ãÏ3Û: oõ »Ã¿ Ï3Ý ËÝ1ÇñÝ»ñ, 3å3 ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý áõÅ»ñÁ, ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÝ 31⁄23ï »Ý Çñ»Ýó 3é3ç3ñÏÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óÝ»Éáõ »õ° 2Ä, »õ° ï3ñμ»ñ Ñ3ñÃ3Ï- Ý»ñáõÙ 1ñ3Ýù ùÝÝ3ñÏ»Éáõ§:

ÚÇß»óÝ»Ýù, áñ í»ñçÇÝ ßñç3ÝáõÙ ÏñÏÇÝ 3ÏïÇõûñ¿Ý ëÏë»É ¿ ßñç3Ý3éáõ»É í3ñã3å»ïÇ ÑÝ3- ñ3õáñ ÷á÷áËáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3ñóÁ (3õ»ÉÇÝ, Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇó Ù¿ÏÁ ÏáÝÏñ»ï ÑÝ3ñ3õáñ ëó»Ý3ñ ¿ñ Ù3ïÝ3Ýß»É, Áëï áñÇ, ́ÐÎ-Ý ÏÁ ÙÇ3Ý3Û Ïá3ÉÇóÇ3ÛÇÝ, »Ã¿ å3ßïûÝ3ÝÏ 3ñáõÇ îÇ·ñ3Ý ê3ñ·ë- »3ÝÁ- Tert.am), ÇëÏ 3Ûëûñ ́ÐÎ 3é3çÝáñ1 ¶3·ÇÏ Ì3éáõÏ»3ÝÁ Zham.am-ÇÝ ïáõ3Í Ñ3ñó31⁄2ñáÛ- óáõÙ 3ÝáõÕÕ3ÏÇ, μ3Ûó ùÝÝ313ï»É ¿ñ Î3é3í3ñáõÃ»3Ý Õ»Ï3í3ñÇÝ:

¦Ì3éáõÏ»3ÝÝ 3ñ1¿Ý ù3ÝÇ ï3ñÇ ¿ 3ëáõÙ ¿, áñ »ñÏñÇ ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý íÇ×3ÏÁ É3õ ã¿, Åá- Õáíñ1Ç ëáóÇ3É3Ï3Ý íÇ×3ÏÁ Í3Ýñ ¿, 3ñï3·3ÕÃÇ ï»Ùå»ñÁ Ùï3Ñá·Çã »Ý: Ø3ñ1Ï3Ýó Ùûï Ûáõ- ë3ÉùáõÃÇõÝÝ áõÅ»Õ3ÝáõÙ ¿: ø3ÝÇ± ï3ñÇ ¿‘ »ë 3ëáõÙ »Ùa »ñÏñáõÙ Éáõñç ÷á÷áËáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ »Ý å¿ïù: Ü3»õ Ñ»Ýó 3Û1 å3ï×3éáí Ù»Ýù Ññ3Å3ñáõ»óÇÝù Ù3ë Ï31⁄2Ù»É Ïá3ÉÇóÇ3ÛÇÝ: âÇ Ï3ñáÕ »ñÏñÇ ÙÇõë áÉáñïÝ»ñáõÙ 3ÝÏáõÙ ÉÇÝÇ, É×3óáõÙ ÉÇÝÇ, ÇëÏ ëåáñïáõÙ‘ ÙÇ3ÛÝ ÷3ÛÉáõÝ Û3ÕÃ3Ý3Ï- Ý»ñ ÉÇÝ»Ý§,- áñå¿ë Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ûÉÇÙåÇ3Ï3Ý ÏáÙÇï¿Ç Ý3Ë3·3Ñ ¶3·ÇÏ Ì3éáõÏ»3ÝÁ Û3õ»É»É ¿ñ, áñ 3Ù¿Ý ï3ñÇ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇó ï3ëÝ»3Ï Ñ31⁄23ñ3õáñ 3ñï3·3ÕÃáÕÝ»ñÇ ÃõáõÙ »õ° ËáëïáõÙ- Ý3ÉÇ ëåáñïëÙ»ÝÝ»ñ Ï3Ý, »õ° 3å3·3ÛÇ ã»ÙåÇáÝÝ»ñ áõ Ù»13É3ÏÇñÝ»ñ:

ÐÐÎ-3Ï3Ý å3ï·3Ù3õáñ ÚáíÑ3ÝÝ¿ë ê3Ñ3Ï»3ÝÁ Û3õ»É»ó, Ã¿ ÝÙ3Ý Éáõñ»ñÇ ï3ñ3ÍáõÙÁ ¦áñáß3ÏÇ ýáÝ§ ëï»ÕÍ»Éáõ Ýå3ï3Ï ¿ Ñ»ï3åÝ1áõÙ, ë3Ï3ÛÝ Çμñ»õ ÐÐÎ ù3ÕËáñÑ1Ç 3Ý13Ù í»ñ- çÇÝë Ýß»ó, Ã¿ å3ïñ3ëï »Ý »ñÏñÇ ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3ÝÁ, Ùß3ÏáÛÃÇÝ, ëåáñïÇÝ í»ñ3μ»ñáÕ ó3ÝÏ3- ó3Í Ñ3ñó ùÝÝ3ñÏ»É »õ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óÝ»É Çñ»Ýó ï»ë3Ï¿ïÝ»ñÁ:

Æ å3ï3ëË3Ý Ù»ñ 3ÛÝ Ñ3ñóÇÝ, Ã¿ ́ÐÎ 3é3çÝáñ1Ý Çñ Ñ3ñó31⁄2ñáÛóáõÙ Ëûë»É ¿ñ ÏáÝÏñ»ï »ñ»õáÛÃÝ»ñÇa 3ñï3·3ÕÃÇ μ3ñÓñ ï»Ùå»ñÇ áõ ÅáÕáíñ1Ç ëáóÇ3É3Ï3Ý ó3Íñ Ù3Ï3ñ13ÏÇ Ù3ëÇÝ, ÐÐÎ-3Ï3Ý å3ï·3Ù3õáñÁ ÝÏ3ï»ó, áñ ÝÙ3Ý ùÝÝ313ïáõÃÇõÝ »Õ»É ¿ Ý3»õ ÝáñÁÝïÇñ 21⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÅáÕáíáõÙ Î3é3í3ñáõÃ»3Ý Íñ3·ñÇ Ñ3ëï3ïÙ3Ý Å3Ù3Ý3Ï, ÇÝãÇ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É ÐÐÎ-Ý Çñ Ï3ñÍÇ- ùÁ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óñ»É ¿ñ, ÇëÏ Î3é3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿É Çñ Ñ»ñÃÇÝa ¦ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý íÇ×3ÏÝ áõ 3×Ç ï»Ùå»- ñÁ§:

â3⁄41⁄4àøàôÂo2Ü Ð2Ø2ð Ð2Ø2ðÒ2ÎàôÂÆôÜ 3⁄4 ä3⁄4îø

Ü2Æð2 Ð2ÚðàôØo2Ü

Â»Ññ3ÝáõÙ Ù»ÏÝ3ñÏ»É ¿ âÙÇ3õáñÙ3Ý ß3ñÅÙ3Ý »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ·3·3ÃÝ3ÅáÕáíÁ, áñÇÝ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÙ ¿ Ý3»õ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ: oõ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ Ý»ñÏ3ÛáõÃÇõÝÁ Æñ3ÝáõÙ Ýß3Ý3ÏáõÙ ¿ áõÅ»ñÇ Ñ3Ù3ßË3ñÑ3ÛÇÝ 13ë3õáñáõ3ÍáõÃ»3Ý ÝÏ3ïÙ3Ùμ áñáß3ÏÇ í»ñ3μ»ñÙáõÝù:

âÙÇ3õáñÙ3Ý ß3ñÅáõÙÁ ëÏ1⁄2μÝ3å¿ë ëï»ÕÍáõ»É ¿ 3ÛÝ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, áñáÝù 3Û1 Å3Ù3Ý3Ï ·áñÍáÕ é31⁄2Ù3Ï3Ý μÉáÏÝ»ñÇ 3Ý13ÙÝ»ñ ã¿ÇÝ: ØÇÝã 3ÛÅÙ, 3ÛëÇÝùÝ 1956 Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÇó Ç í»ñ, 3ßË3ñ- ÑáõÙ ß3ï μ3Ý ¿ ÷áËáõ»É. ÷Éáõ1⁄2áõ»É ¿ ì3ñß3õ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ3·ÇñÁ, Û3ÛïÝáõ»É »Ý Ýáñ3ÝÏ3Ë »ñÏñ- Ý»ñ, ëï»ÕÍáõ»É ¿ Ð2äÎ-Á: âÙÇ3õáñÙ3Ý ß3ñÅÙ3Ý ¿áõÃÇõÝÁ ÝáÛÝå¿ë ÷áËáõ»É ¿: 2ÛÝ 2ñ»õÙáõïùÇ ù3Õ3ù3-ïÝï»ë3Ï3Ý ¿ùëå3ÝëÇ3ÛÇ 1¿Ù 2ñ»õ»ÉùÇ 1ÇÙ31ñáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3ñÃ3ÏÝ»ñÇó Ù¿ÏÝ ¿ 13ñÓ»É, »õ ß3ñÅÙ3Ý Ñ3Ù3ÅáÕáíÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ 3ÝáõÕÕ3ÏÇ Ýß3Ý3ÏáõÙ ¿ Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝáõ»É 1ñ3Ý:

àõ1⁄2»Ýù, Ã¿ ãáõ1⁄2»Ýù, ë3Ï3ÛÝ 3ßË3ñÑáõÙ Ñ3Ï3ëáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ï3ñ¿óï3ñÇ 3õ»ÉÇ »Ý ëñõáõÙ‘ Ùûï»- Ý3Éáí Ñ»ñÃ3Ï3Ý å3ï»ñ31⁄2ÙÇÝ, 3ñ1¿Ý‘ ÙÇçù3Õ3ù3ÏñÃ3Ï3Ý: Àëï ¿áõÃ»3Ý, 3Ûë å3ï»ñ31⁄2ÙÝ 3ñ- 1¿Ý ï3ñμ»ñ ×3Ï3ïÝ»ñáõÙ ÁÝÃ3ÝáõÙ ¿, »õ »ñÏñÝ»ñÁ Å3Ù3Ý3Ï 3é Å3Ù3Ý3Ï ëïÇåáõ3Í »Ý Ï3ï3ñ»É 1Åáõ3ñ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝ:

Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÁ ÝáÛÝå¿ë Ï3Ý·Ý3Í ¿ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝ 3é3ç. Ýñ3Ý 3é3ç3ñÏáõÙ »Ý oõñ3ëÇ3Ï3Ý ÙÇáõÃÇõÝ, áñÇ ·ÉË3õáñ Ýå3ï3ÏÝ, Áëï »ñ»õáÛÃÇÝ, ÏÁ 13éÝ3Û 2ñ»õÙáõïùÇ ¿ùëå3ÝÇ3ÛÇÝ 1ÇÙ31- ñáõÃÇõÝÁ, »õ »õñ3ÇÝï»·ñáõÙÁ, áñÁ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇÝ ÏÁ ï»Õ3÷áËáõÇ μ3ñÇÏ31Ç 3ñ»õÙï»3Ý ÏáÕÙÁ: Ð3- Û3ëï3ÝÁ ï3ï3ÝõáõÙ ¿, ù3ÝÇ áñ ï»ëÝáõÙ ¿, áñ »ñÏáõ áõÕÇÝ»ñÝ ¿É Ýñ3Ý ï3ÝáõÙ »Ý áã 1¿åÇ μ3ñ·3- õ3×áõÙ: oÃ¿ »õñ3ëÇ3Ï3Ý ×3Ý3å3ñÑÁ í»ñ313ñÓ ¿ 1¿åÇ ÊêÐØ, Ï»ÕÍ ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý, ÏáéáõåóÇ3- ÛÇ, ëáõï Ñ3Ûñ»Ý3ëÇñáõÃ»3Ý »õ 3ÛÉÝÇ ß3ñáõÝ3ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿, 3å3 oõñ3ÙÇáõÃÇõÝÁ Ï3ñáÕ ¿ 13éÝ3É, μ3ñ»÷áËáõÙÝ»ñÇ μ3ó3Ï3ÛáõÃ»3Ý 1¿åùáõÙ, ÑáõÙù3ÛÇÝ Ïóáñ1-»ñÏñÇ í»ñ3Íáõ»Éáõ Ñ»é3ÝÏ3ñ, ÁÝ1 áñáõÙ èáõë3ëï3ÝÇ 1¿Ù Ñ3Ï3Ù3ñïáõÃ»3Ý ·Ýáí:

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âÙÇ3õáñáõ»ÉÁ »õ ã¿1⁄2áùáõÃÇõÝÁ ß3ï É3õ ÙÇçáó ¿ 3ßË3ñÑ3ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óÝ»ñÇ ÝÏ3ï- Ù3Ùμ ë»÷3Ï3Ý í»ñ3μ»ñÙáõÝùÁ Ñéã3Ï»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ, »õ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÁ Ï3ñáÕ ¿ñ Ùß3Ï»É Çñ ã¿1⁄2áùáõÃ»3Ý é31⁄2Ù3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ‘ Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ»Éáí, áñ Ùï31Çñ ¿ Õ»Ï3í3ñáõ»É ÙÇ3ÛÝ ë»÷3Ï3Ý 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ß3Ñ»ñáí: ê3Ï3ÛÝ 3Û1 ×3Ý3å3ñÑÁ å3Ñ3ÝçáõÙ ¿ Ñ3Ù3ñÓ3ÏáõÃÇõÝ »õ éÇëÏ3ÛÇÝ ù3ÛÉ»ñ, 3é3çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ ù3- Õ3ù3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý »õ ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý 31⁄2·3ÛÝ3óáõÙ, μ3éÇ É3ÛÝ ÇÙ3ëïáí:

oñμ ã¿1⁄2áùáõÃ»3Ý Ï3Ù ÇÝã-áñ ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ3Ý Ù3ëÇÝ ËûëáõÙ ¿ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÁ, áí ÁÝïñáõ»É ¿ íÇ×»ÉÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ Å3Ù3Ý3Ï, »ñμ »ñÏñáõÙ ãÏ3Û »Ï3ÙáõïÝ»ñÇ »õ ë»÷3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ·áÛù3·ñáõÙ, »ñμ ÝáÛ- ÝÇëÏ í3ñã3å»ïÝ ÁÝ1áõÝáõÙ ¿, áñ ïÝï»ëáõÃ»3Ý Ï¿ëÁ ¦ëïáõ»ñáõÙ§ ¿, »ñμ ûÉÇ·3ñËÝ»ñÁ Ñ3ñëï3ÝáõÙ »Ý, ÇëÏ »ñÏñáõÙ Ïáõï3ÏõáõÙ »Ý ß3ï áõ ß3ï å3ñïù»ñ, 3Û1åÇëÇ »ñÏñÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ãÇ Ï3ñáÕ Ëû- ë»É ë»÷3Ï3Ý áõÕáõ Ù3ëÇÝ: Üñ3Ý Ý»ï»Éáõ »Ý ÇÝãå¿ë ·Ý13Ï, ù3ÝÇ 1»é Ý3 ãÇ Û3ÛïÝáõ»É ÇÝã-áñ Ù¿ÏÇ 13ñå3ëáõÙ:

¶3ÉÇù 3ßÝ3ÝÁ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ É3õ ÑÝ3ñ3õáñáõÃÇõÝ ¿ ëï»ÕÍáõ»Éáõ »ñÏÇñÝ 3Ûë 3ïñ3ÏóÇáÝÇó 1áõñë μ»ñ»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ, »ñμ 1áõ ã·Çï»ë, Ã¿ ÇÝã ¿ ù»1⁄2 ëå3ëáõÙ ÏïñáõÏ ßñç313ñÓÇ Ñ»ï»õáõÙ: ̧ñ3 Ñ3Ù3ñ Õ»Ï3í3ñáõÃ»3ÝÁ Ñ3ñÏ ¿ Ñ3ë3ñ3ÏáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï ÏÇëáõ»É ï»Õ»Ï3ïõáõÃ»3Ùμ »õ å3ï3ëË3Ý3ïõáõÃ»3Ùμ: oñμ »ñÏñáõÙ å3ï3ëË3Ý3ïõáõÃÇõÝÝ Çñ íñ3Û ¿ í»ñóÝáõÙ Ñ3ë3ñ3- ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ, áã ÙÇ ·»ñï¿ñáõÃÇõÝ ãÇ Ï3ñáÕ Ýñ3 Ñ»ï Ëûë»É áõÅÇ Ï3Ù å3ñï31ñ3ÝùÇ É»1⁄2áõáí:

ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÝ 3é3ÛÅÙ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ ÇÝùÝáõñáÛÝ 1áõñë ·3É 3Ûë É3μÇñÇÝÃáëÇó, ë3Ï3ÛÝ ÇÝã áñ å3ÑÇ Ý3 ¿É ÏÁ Ñ3ëÏ3Ý3Û, áñ å¿ïù ¿ û·ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ï3Ýã»É Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3Ï3Ý Ï3ñÍÇùÁ: oõ áñù3Ý ßáõï ·3Û 3Û1 å3ÑÁ, 3ÛÝù3Ý Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇÝ Ñ»ßï »õ 3Ýó3õ ÏÁ ÉÇÝÇ 3ßË3ñÑ3ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßÙ3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÁ: ¦Èð2¶Æð§

New French Textbook Teaches About Armenian Genocide

PARIS -- The French Education Ministry has decided to include chapters about the Armenian genocide in history and geography books used in French secondary schools. French students studying world history since 1910 will also read a chapter called “The Armenian Genocide.”

The chapter in the textbooks is devoted to giving detailed information on the Armenian genocide, which will explain in detail of the genocide, ethnic structure of the Ottoman Empire, rule of Talat Pasha and policies of nationalist Turks and purported exiles. The chapter will also include

the numbers of Armenians who were killed, exiled or sent to death. The author of the new textbook Valerie Perthue, suggested the pupils to draw a new glance to

the history and examine a number of historical events, which are usual not included in European school curriculum. The authors also included French history controversial episodes, particularly the facts revealing cooperation established between French officials , Marshal Peten and Hitler in the course of Fascist Germany occupation. Algeria colonization by France as well as decolonization processes are widely discussed in the new textbooks.

French President Francois Hollande answered Turkish reporter’s question on inclusion of the Armenian Genocide materials in the French textbooks.

Talking to Hurriyet on the margins of the 20th Annual Ambassador’s Conference in Paris, Hollande said “it was absolutely out of his knowledge.”

“Changes in the books are prepared by commissions ... The desicion does not come from me, but I will ask and learn where it comes from. Then I will inform you,” Hurriyet Daily News quotes Hollande.

Turkey’s European Union Minister EgemenBagis has strongly criticized the introduction of the Armenian Genocide to French history textbooks.

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Bagis called on the French, who take great pride in their state founded on the worthy precepts of “liberté, égalité, et fraternité” (liberty, equality and fraternity), to reexamine their understanding of their own national motto. “I hope they will soon realize this mistake and correct it,” he said, while delivering a speech at a meeting arranged by the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA), the Hurriyet Daily news reports.

**Three Armenians Killed in Damascus**

**Aftermath of bob explosion in Jaraman district**

DAMASCUS -- According to the Armenian Diocese in Damascus three Armenians were killed in one of the city’s districts on Tuesday, Aug 28.

The killed Armenians were identified as Bedros Matosian, born in 1963, Kevork Matosian, born in 1966 and Levon Matosian, born in 1990. The circumstances of their death was not clear.

Currently, the Diocese representatives are trying to get bodies out of the battle zone.

Also on Tuesday and explosion took place near the entrance of Jaramana cemetery during a funeral killing tens of people and wounding others.

Jaramana is a Christian-populated district

of Damascus where some 400 Armenians reside. In Aleppo bobs exploded close to Armenian Elderly Nursing home but no damages or casualties

were reported. More than fourteen Armenians have died, two of them were soldiers of Syrian Army, during the

last seventeen months of clashes between government forces and opposition fighters.

**An Effective Approach to Help the Armenian Community in Syria**

The crisis in Syria and as a consequence, the perilous daily lives of the Syrian Armenians have alarmed and deeply concerned the Armenian community.

The historical record reminds us the past and present destiny of nations; making assumptions on past history may lead us to uncertainty and anxiety; and that is why we should move with practical considerations, determination and a spirit of service.

The spiritual heads, and the leaders of the political and humanitarian organizations in the Western U.S.A., as an alert guardians of the community, came together to collectively bring together the “Syrian Armenian Relief Fund Executive Committee” with the task of planning activities and coordinating fundraising, and distributing funds as needed to save lives, and to provide moral and emotional support for our sisters and brothers living in

difficult conditions across Syria, and sustenance for their Armenian institutions. The Syrian Armenian Relief Fund Executive Committee includes the following organizations,

their representatives and the roles that they have accepted within the committee:

· · · · Western Prelacy of the Armenian Apostolic Church of America, Meher Der Ohanessian, Treasurer;

Armenian Evangelical Union of North America (AEUNA), Zaven Khanjian, Chairperson; Armenian Relief Society of Western U.S.A. (ARS), Sona Madarian, Secretary; Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU), Harry Balian, Vice Chairperson;

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· Catholicosate of Cilicia, Central Executive Board, Khajag Dikijian; · Western Diocese of the Armenian Church, Barkev Hamalian; · Armenian Catholic Church, Ara Aroyan; · Armenian Democratic Liberal (Ramgavar) Party, Khachig Janoyan; · Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Western U.S.A. (ARF), Vartkes Nalbandian; and · Social Democrat Hunchakian Party-Western U.S.A., Harout Fakjian.

The abovementioned Executive Committee members are committed to do their outmost to reach out to community at large, to make the impossible possible and to extend a helping hand for the sake of the survival of the Syrian-Armenians.

The Executive Committee has also received the blessings of the Armenian Apostolic Churches, His Eminence Archbishop Mousheg Mardirossian, Prelate, and Archbishop Hovnan Derderian, Primate, as well as the leaders of the Armenian Catholic and Evangelical churches, and has already taken effective first steps.

We appeal to the Armenian people, to follow our announcements in the print and TV media, the web site www.syrianarmenianrelieffund.org, and Facebook page, and to make the most generous contribution that you could possibly make.

Please send your check payable to the Syrian Armenian Relief Fund, P.O. Box 1948, Glendale, CA 91209-1948, or make an online contribution at www.syrianarmenianrelieffund.org.

Syrian Armenian Relief Fund Executive Committee

**Time for Action: Syrian-Armenians Need Your Urgent Assistance**

By Harut Sassounian Publisher, The California Courier

There has been too much talk about the tragic crisis in Syria by self-described analysts and experts who have managed to spread misinformation, while inadvertently jeopardizing the safety of the Armenian community.

At this late hour, rather than propagating half-baked political ideas, the Diaspora should concentrate on providing urgently needed humanitarian assistance to Syrian-Armenians.

It is encouraging that Armenian organizations have started raising funds to meet the needs of Armenians in Syria. Going a step further, in some countries, social, religious and political organizations have formed coalitions to extend the needed help in a coordinated manner. Hopefully, these groups will shortly issue statements about the specific needs of Syrian-Armenians, the amount to be raised, and the mechanism to distribute the funds.

In the absence of a Diaspora-wide structure that would represent all Armenians worldwide and deal with their collective problems, each community is trying to form its own umbrella organization. In some instances, several joint committees are established in the same community, each dealing with a specific issue. To avoid redundancies, it would be preferable to form a single joint committee in each community with subcommittees dealing with separate tasks.

Additionally, two pan-Armenian bodies can play a critical role in this humanitarian crisis -- one located outside Syria and the other inside the country tasked with the coordination and distribution of humanitarian assistance from all sources:

1) The entity outside Syria – which is yet to be formed -- would not only coordinate aid from the Diaspora and Armenia, but more importantly, secure assistance from governments, international organizations (United Nations, World Council of Churches), and non-governmental organizations.

2) The recently-created pan-Armenian entity within Syria is composed of all Armenian religious and charitable organizations. It is charged with communicating the needs of the community to the outside world, receiving the incoming aid, and distributing it to Armenians throughout the country.

While a comprehensive assessment of the Syrian-Armenian community’s extensive needs has not been made, it is clear that millions of dollars are required to provide thousands of destitute families with food, water, medical care, fuel, electricity, and tuition for needy students. It is imperative that the aid be shared with all people living in or near Armenian neighborhoods, regardless of their ethnic or religious affiliation.

In order to carry out such a worldwide large-scale fundraising drive, the Hayastan All-Armenian Fund should consider dedicating its telethon this year to the Syrian-Armenian relief. Major organizations and benefactors should be asked to make generous contributions to preserve the historic Armenian presence in Syria that predates

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the Genocide. The All-Armenian Fund has already taken a first step by opening a special bank account in Yerevan to solicit donations for Syria which so far has raised $50,000. This amount has been spent on airlifting hundreds of children from Aleppo to summer camps in Armenia.

Funds should also be urgently raised to provide housing and living expenses to Syrians who have recently moved to Armenia either on a temporary or permanent basis. This is not the time for arguing over the difficult choice between helping Armenians stay in Syria or move out, since their very survival is at stake. Everyone must respect the wishes and judgments of Syrian-Armenians and support their personal decisions. After all, since their lives are on the line, their choices must not be questioned. This is also not the time to make judgments on the quality and quantity of assistance provided by the Armenian government to Syrian-Armenian refugees. Such assessments can be made at a later date, after the storm has subsided.

Finally, even though financial assistance is the most urgent need, equally important is conveying the message to Syrian-Armenians that they are not alone in their greatest hour of need! They should be made to feel that Armenians and good people around the world sincerely care for their well-being and are doing everything possible to safeguard their survival.

Such a hopeful and caring message is critical not only for Syrian-Armenians, but to all Armenians throughout the world. The pain of any one community must be shared by all Armenians who should rush to help the stricken community, because they are all members of one big family. This spirit of mutual support would assure all Armenian communities that in case of misfortune, they will not be abandoned to their tragic fate.

In view of the dire situation of Armenians in Syria, let’s set aside all other considerations and rush to their

rescue!

Arthur Abraham Crowned WBO Super Middleweight Champion

BERLIN -- Arthur Abraham is the new world WBO super middleweight champion after his unanimous win over Robert Stieglitz.

Abraham, 32, who defended his IBF middleweight title 10 times between 2005 and 2009, is now the world champion at the heavier weight after the judges scored the fight 116-112, 116-112, 115-113 on Saturday.

"This is an emotional moment for me and it's hard to describe how I feel," said Abraham.

"I always wanted to be the middleweight world champion and now I am the super middleweight champion too.

"I trained hard for this and I had to box cleverly against such a good champion."

Abraham lived up to his 'King Arthur' moniker and the new champion now has a record of 27 knock-outs in 35 wins and three defeats.

Having laboured to a points win over Piotr Wilczewski to defend his European WBO title in March, Abraham was back to the best fighting for the world title.

Abraham started the stronger of the pair, but the champion twice pinned the challenger to the ropes in the second and started to exert his authority.

Stieglitz raised the tempo in the third and Abraham fell clearly behind on points going into the fourth, but responded with some body-head combinations and one sharp hook left Stieglitz with swelling above his left eye.

By the fifth, Stieglitz's face was marking noticeably while Abraham started to let his guard drop to lure the champion as he landed some punishing shots.

Stieglitz put together some good combinations in the seventh round and kept up his impressive work-rate, despite a cut above his right eye needing the attention of the ring doctor in the 10th.

Abraham raised his fists to the Berlin crowd in early celebration before the start of the 12 and finished clearly ahead on points as Stieglitz, 31, suffered the third defeat of his career in his 45th fight. Next for Abraham is a match-up with the winner of WBA super-middleweight champion Felix Sturm and IBF middleweight title-holder Daniel Geale fight.

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European Commission Allocates New Funding for Judicial Reform

and Economic Integration in Armenia

BRUSSELS -- The European Union has approved 60 million euros ($75 million) in fresh assistance to Armenia which is designed to support judicial reforms and speed up the country’s integration into the EU.

The annual assistance announced late on Tuesday by the EU’s executive body, the European Commission, stems from its Eastern Partnership program covering six former Soviet republics. The commission said the money will be spent on “accelerating justice reform and preparing the ground for increased bilateral relations, political association and economic integration with the EU.”

The new assistance will include: new training opportunities for key national institutions, providing expert advice and best practice, setting up of schools for lawyers, judges and prosecutors. The overall goal is an independent, transparent and effective judiciary to serve the Armenian people, and builds on the EU’s previous support to judicial reform in Armenia.

The funding will also support those Armenian institutions involved in the preparation and future implementation of new EU-Armenia agreements currently being negotiated, and in particular the Association Agreement (including a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area), and the Visa Facilitation and Re-admission Agreement.

Opposition politicians and other government critics are highly skeptical about the authorities willingness to implement these programs, saying that an independent judiciary would pose a serious threat to President Serzh Sarkisian’s hold on power. They say Armenian courts will therefore continue rarely defying the government and security apparatus without a democratization of the overall political system.

According to official statistics, only about 2 percent of individuals charged with various crimes in Armenia were acquitted by local courts last year. EU President Herman Van Rompuy praised reforms carried out by the government when he visited Yerevan last month. He said the Sarkisian administration is “on the right track.” Van Rompuy also described the Armenian authorities’ handling of the May 6 parliamentary elections as an “important step forward.”

Israeli Diaspora Minister: Nobody in Israel Denies the Fact of

Armenian Genocide

YEREVAN -- Public Diplomacy and Diaspora Affairs Minister of Israel, Yuli- Yoel Edelstein laid a wreathe at the Genocide Memorial on Yerevan’s Tsitsernakabert hill during what was the second trip to Armenia by an Israeli government member in four months. Agriculture Minister Orit Noked visited Yerevan and paid her respects to genocide victims in April.

"The Armenian Genocide is widely recognized in Israel", the minister said after visiting the genocide memorial, he also drew parallels between the Jewish Holocaust and the Armenians Genocide of the 20th century.

Public Diplomacy and Diaspora Affairs Minister of Israel, Yuli-Yoel Edelstein Laing a wreath at the Armenian Genocide Memorial

“True, there is no state law [in Israel recognizing Armenian service (Azatutyun.am). “But I think that in Israel, in view of ... our common history and

the genocide,]” Edelstein told RFE/RL’s

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some similar elements and moments, you will hardly find people who will deny the genocide, who will say, like we unfortunately hear, that all this is fabrications and lies.”

“So I think that unfortunately -- I stress, unfortunately -- in this area our peoples have quite a lot in common, quite a lot for mutual understanding,” he said.

Citing the strategic character of Israel’s relationship with Turkey, successive Israeli governments have resisted domestic calls for Armenian genocide recognition. An Israeli Foreign Ministry official reaffirmed this stance during landmark hearings on the issue that were organized by an Israeli parliament committee last December.

Support for Armenian genocide recognition appears to have grown within the Israeli parliament, the Knesset, and the government since 2010. Some observers link that to Israel’s worsened relations with Turkey, which vehemently denies the genocide.

Israel’s Environment Minister Gilad Erdan, a close ally of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, publicly called for the Jewish state to “formally recognize the Holocaust perpetrated against the Armenian people” during further Knesset discussions on the sensitive issue in June. Erdan acknowledged that the Israeli government has not changed its policy yet.

Edelstein arrived in Armenia to attend, together with Armenian Culture Minister Hasmik Poghosian, an event marking the 20th anniversary of an organization representing the country’s small Jewish community. He also held separate talks with Poghosian.

“When it comes to cultural exchanges, there are benefits to both sides involved,” Edelstein told RFE/RL’s Armenian service. “That is why I hope this is not just a visit but perhaps also a change to some different phase in at least cultural ties between us.” “I am sure that such meetings and contacts will continue and we will turn our relations from being just good and normal to relations that will fully realize the potential for cooperation between our countries,” added the Ukrainian-born minister.

IT Group Wants Tougher Government Action Against Software

Piracy in Armenia

YEREVAN -- The Armenian authorities are still not doing enough to combat widespread software piracy despite growing use of licensed computer programs in the country, according to local representatives of an international information technology (IT) association.

In its most recent global survey, the Business Software Alliance (BSA) representing the worldwide IT industry estimated that 88 percent of software used in Armenia last year was pirated or not fully licensed. The BSA reported a 93 percent piracy rate in 2007. The number of computers used by state and private institutions as well as individuals has increased significantly since then.

Acting as a legal representative of Microsoft, the BSA has helped to lower the piracy rate by exposing local firms using unlicensed copies of software produced by the U.S. IT giant. In the words of NarineMkrtchian, a BSA official in Yerevan, all of them except the Brabion Flora Service, a flower retailer with a dozen office computers, have agreed to compensate Microsoft for the copyright infringement so far.

Earlier this year, the BSA filed a lawsuit against Brabion, demanding 2.4 million drams ($6,000) in compensatory damages. The first court hearing on the case took place last month.

Mkrtchian said on Tuesday that top executives of private firms caught pirating rightly complain that Armenian government agencies and other state-funded organizations themselves routinely use unlicensed products for their computers.

“Eighty percent of programs used in our government agencies are pirated,” Mkrtchian told RFE/RL’s Armenian service (Azatutyun.am). “Many directors of private firms caught pirating say that the government should start the legalization process from itself and serve as an example for the private sector.”

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Prof. Shemmassian to Present Musa Dagh at USC international workshop on

Resisting the Path to Genocide

LOS ANGELES -- The 2020 “Genocide Resistance” Research Cluster, University of Southern California (USC) Dana andDavid Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences has organized an international workshop on “Resisting the Path to Genocide: Groups and Networks.” The two-day conference will take place on September 7-8, 2012 according to the schedule indicated below.

The general theme of the conference seeks to answer the following questions: “How do opposition groups form? Which social, cultural and political conditions support the development of the group opposition and resistance? What kind of groups

whether informal networks, private organizations or public institutions, are most likely to resist discrimination and violence in genocidal societies? How do we classify groups of resisters? What oppositional strategies have proven to be most effective at the group level? Do group activities have an impact, and can they help stop the violent radicalization of a genocidal society?”

Prof. Vahram Shemmassian, Director of the Armenian Studies Program at California State University, Northridge, and an expert on Musa Dagh, will be one of the presenters among scholars participating from the United States, Europe and Africa. He will focus onthe reasons why the majority of the Armenians of Musa Dagh elected to defy the Ottoman government’s deportation orders in the summer of 1915 that aimed at genocide. He will also dwell on the process of the resistance that had a succesful outcome.

The conference is open to the public. Those who plan to attend are requested to contact AlidaLiberman, research assistant, ataliberma@usc.edu.

Friday, September 7: USC, University Park Campus, Doheny Library, Library Friend Lecture Hall Morning Session: 10:00 – 12:30 Welcome remarks Walter Richmond – German, Russian, and Classical Studies; Occidental College - Circassian Efforts to Broker Peace

with Russia VahramShemmassian –Armenian Studies; California State University, Northridge - The Decision and Process of the

Musa Dagh Resistance to the Armenian Genocide Tanja von Fransecky – History, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany - Group Escaping from Deportation Trains

in France, Belgium and the Netherlands Luncheon

Keynote address: 1:30 – 3:00

Mark Roseman – Pat M Glazer Chair for Jewish Studies & Professor in History, Indiana University Bloomington - Rescued from Memory: Hidden Networks and Hidden Jews in the Holocaust

Afternoon session 3:30 – 5:30

Michael Bazyler – Law, Chapman University - Lawyers as Resisters to the Holocaust; Lawyers as Perpetrators of the Holocaust; Lawyers as Bystanders to the Holocaust

Jadwiga Biskupska – History, Yale University - The Polish Intelligentsia and the Primacy of Jewish Victimhood Saturday, September 8:VILLA AURORA, Pacific Palisades Morning Session: 10:00 – 12:30 Susanne Beer – Sociology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany - Information networks of rescuers in Nazi

Germany Tim Gallimore – Higher Learning Commission, Interdisciplinary Genocide Studies Center - The Role of External

Groups in Combating Genocide Ideology and Genocide Denial: The Case of Rwanda

Oscar EdororUbhenin – Public Administration, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria - Informal Networks and Resistance to Mass Violence in Nigeria

Concluding remarks HassounaMosbahi, Feuchtwanger fellow (Villa Aurora) - Readings from his novel “A Tunisian Tale” in Arabic and in English.

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Open Music Society Foundation to Perform at Shuttle Endeavour

Arrival Ceremony

LOS ANGELES -- The Open Music Society Foundation (OMSF), a Los Angeles-based arts organization, has been selected by the California Science Center Foundation to present artistic performances at the upcoming Space Shuttle Endeavour arrival ceremony, the OMSF announced today.

For the past several months, the California Science Center and OMSF have collaborated to develop the artistic program of the highly anticipated event, which will take place at Los Angeles International Airport on September 20.

The OMSF’s involvement comprises the design and production of several especially commissioned performances, to be featured at various stages of the arrival ceremony.

The California Science Center was named by NASA as the new home of Space Shuttle Endeavour, which

completed its last mission in 2011 following a 25-year run and close to 123 million miles of space travel. Thus Endeavor’s trip to Los Angeles is considered something of a homecoming, given that the shuttle was built in Palmdale, near Los Angeles.

“The OMSF team and I are very proud to be a part of Endeavour’s historic arrival in Los Angeles,” said Aram Gharabekian, the OMSF’s artistic director and conductor. “This will be a globally significant celebration, marking the shuttle program’s extraordinary achievements, which continue to benefit all of humanity. I commend the California Science Center leadership and the cities of Los Angeles and Inglewood for their heroic efforts to bring Endeavour to California. The shuttle’s homecoming will stir deeply felt emotions and civic pride throughout our community, and we’re excited to join this celebration through the language of music.”

On September 20, Endeavor will be flown atop a modified Boeing 747 from Florida’s Kennedy Space Center to LAX, where it will remain a few weeks before being transported to the California Science Center. The arrival ceremony at the airport, to be held

inside an United Airlines hangar, will mark the spacecraft’s final journey. According to a California Science Center spokesperson, the arrival ceremony will be attended by

some 300 dignitaries and guests, and receive global media coverage. Highlights of the event will include a VIP reception, live feeds of Endeavour’s landing and taxiing toward the hangar (shown on Jumbotron screens), rolling of the red carpet and disembarkation of dignitaries, and speeches by various officials, all interspersed with performances featuring some 40 OMSF artists. There are also plans to film the entire event for the production of a commemorative DVD.

The OMSF is in charge of the considerable logistics of the event’s artistic program, which entails the execution of unconventional sound- and staging-design components, given the unique challenges of performing inside an airport hangar.

“We bring together talent from various nationalities, all collaborating to create great things,” said Alina Koutnouyan, the OMSF’s COO and a founding member of its Board. “Our organization is thrilled to work with the California Science Center’s visionary leadership in celebrating the enormous

Space Shuttle Endeavour. Photo by Matt Stroshane/Getty Images North America.

OMSF artistic director and conductor Aram Gharabekian. Photo by Hakber.

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scientific strides achieved through the space program, and Endeavour in particular. We are very grateful for the tremendous support and encouragement we have received from the California Science Center and City of Los Angeles, various Council members, and the community at large. We look forward to a memorable welcome to Shuttle Endeavour.”

Varand Gourjian, another OMSF founding Board member and CFO, stated, “By collaborating with the California Science Center on Endeavour’s arrival ceremony, the OMSF aims to achieve an exhilarating convergence of art and science.”

On the night of October 12, Endeavour will leave LAX, arriving the next morning at Inglewood City Hall. From there the shuttle will travel through city streets to the California Science Center — the first time a spacecraft will be transported through urban roadways. Beginning October 30, Endeavour will be on display at the California Science Center’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion while the Samuel Oschin Air and Space Center, a new addition to the Science Center, is being built. When the new wing is completed, in 2017, Endeavour will be its centerpiece, along with the shuttle’s external fuel tank and twin rocket boosters. The Samuel

American University of Armenia to Launch Undergraduate Program in Fall 2013

YEREVAN -- The American University of Armenia (AUA) announced plans to launch its first-ever Bachelor's degree program, set to begin in the fall of 2013. In its over 20-year history, AUA has become one of the country's premier research institutes. With the addition of a new, four-year undergraduate curriculum, the university raises the bar for education in Armenia even higher.

The momentous announcement was made by AUA President Dr. Bruce Boghosian at a recent press conference which garnered worldwide media coverage. Dr. Boghosian noted that the undergraduate program will enroll approximately 300 students every year, with the goal of accommodating 1,200 undergraduates by 2017.

AUA's new undergraduate program will offer majors in Computational Sciences, Business, and English & Communications. The Bachelor's degree in

Computational Sciences will include topics in applied mathematics and computer science, as well as courses in computational techniques for the simulation and modeling of systems of relevance to science and engineering. The coursework for the Bachelor's degree in Business will include a solid grounding in economics, finance, accounting, marketing, management, and business communications. The Bachelor's degree in English & Communications will include courses in journalism, public relations, writing, translation and other aspects of communications.

AUA's 4-year program will help lay a foundation for graduates who are well-positioned to pursue careers and advance progress in their homeland. All three programs will have a strong general education component, and will be taught in English. These new majors will complement the seven Master's degree programs that AUA currently offers.

The new AUA undergraduate program will allow the university to further its mission of providing accessible, high- quality education for the next generation of Armenian professionals - while at the same time making the school a destination for international students. "All of us at AUA are excited about reaching this new milestone...We remain committed to offering rigorous academics and an Armenian education, and look forward to a vibrant, international faculty and student body from Armenia and abroad," noted Dr. Boghosian. He further emphasized, "The university will keep in place its 'need-blind' admissions policy, continuing to ensure that no qualified Armenian student is denied an education at AUA because they lack the means to pay tuition."

At the press conference (l. to r.) Director of Accreditation Sharistan Melkonian; Vice President of Operations Ashot Ghazaryan; AUA President Dr. Bruce Boghosian; AUA Foundation Board Member Dr. Yuri Sarkissian; Vice President of Finance Gevorg Goyunyan.

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The American University of Armenia is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, 985 Atlantic Avenue, #100, Alameda, CA 94501, (510) 748-9001. Following an intensive proposal process, which included a visit to the university, the Commission approved the offering of the new undergraduate program. The Western Association of Schools and Colleges is one of six regional accreditation agencies recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. The undergraduate program has also already received a license from the Republic of Armenia's Ministry of Education and Science.

www.aua.am/undergraduate

New Publication Sixth Edition of George Bournoutian’s

"A Concise History of the Armenian People"

COSTA MESA, CA -- Mazda Academic Press has just published the Sixth Edition of George Bournoutian’s: A Concise History of the Armenian People. The revised and up-to-date edition is dedicated to Bournoutian’s friend, Aris Sevag, who edited this edition.

Bournoutian’s book, the first comprehensive survey in English of the history of the Armenians from ancient times to the present, has been adopted as a textbook in a number of high school and colleges and has been well-received by Armenian and non-Armenian readers. Students and teachers of history have made use of the special maps and timetables. Some 15,000 copies have been sold.

In 2003, the AGBU of Argentina commissioned a Spanish translation of the book to be undertaken by Ms. Tiravanti de Margossian. Published in Buenos Aires the book is titled Historia Sucinta del Pueblo Armenio and was featured at the International Book Fair in Buenos Aires. That edition was sold out and a new printing is in preparation.

In 2011, Bournoutian gave Aras Press of Istanbul permission to publish a Turkish translation prepared by Ender Abadoghlu and Ohannes Kilichdaghi. The title of the book is Ermeni Tarihi and it was featured at the Istanbul International

Book Fair. In 2012, the Egypto-Lebanese Publishing House, at the behest of the AGBU in Egypt, obtained

Bournoutian’s permission and prepared an Arabic translation by Sahar Tawfiq. Published in Cairo the book is titled Mawgez Tarikh al-Sh`ab al-Armani and was featured at the Cairo International Book Fair.

Simultaneously, the AGBU has undertaken to prepare an Armenian translation of the sixth English edition. Translated by Artsvi Bakhchinyan, the book is titled Hay Zhoghovrdi Hamarod Patmut`yun, will be published next week in Yerevan by the Hayastan Press.

While in Tokyo at the invitation of Sophia University to deliver two lectures on his books dealing with Iran and the Caucasus in the 18-19th centuries, Bournoutian signed an agreement with the noted Japanese publishing firm Fujiwara-Shoten to prepare a Japanese translation by Professors Komaki and Watanabe to be published in Tokyo in 2013 under the title Arumenia-jin no Rekishi.

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**FRONT PAGE**

**Spiru C. Haret **15 February 1851 – 17 December 1912 was a Romanian mathematician, astronomer and politician. Haret was born in Iaşi, Moldavia, to an old Armenian family, He made a fundamental contribution to the *n*-body problem in celestial mechanics by proving that using a third degree approximation for the disturbing forces implies instability of the major axes of the orbits, and by introducing the concept of *secular perturbations *in relation to this.

As a politician, during his three terms as Minister of Education, Haret ran deep reforms, building the modern Romanian education system. He was made a full member of the Romanian Academy in 1892. He also founded the Astronomical observatory in Bucharest, appointing Nicolae Coculescu as its first director. The crater Haret on the Moon is named after him. **Life **Haret was born in Iaşi, Moldavia, to an old Armenian family, and showed an early talent for mathematics, publishing two textbooks (one in algebra and one in trigonometry) when he was still a high school student. In 1869 he entered the University of Bucharest, where he studied physics and mathematics. In 1870, while a student in his second term, he became teacher of mathematics at Nifon Seminary in Bucharest, but quit the following year in order to continue his studies. In 1874, at age 23, he graduated with a degree in physics and mathematics.

After graduation, Haret won a scholarship competition organized by Titu Maiorescu and went to Paris in order to study mathematics at the Sorbonne. There

he earned a mathematics diploma in 1875 and a physics diploma in 1876. Two years later (on January 18, 1878) he earned his Ph.D. by defending his thesis, *Sur l’invariabilité des grandes axes des orbites planétaires *(*On the invariability of the major axis of planetary orbits*), in front of examiners led by Victor Puiseux.

In this work he proved a result fundamental for the *n*-body problem in astronomy, the thesis being published in Vol. XVIII of the *Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris*. Haret was the first Romanian to obtain a Ph.D. degree in Paris.

After his return to Romania in 1878, Haret abandoned scientific research and dedicated the rest of his life to improving Romanian education, which was heavily underdeveloped at the time, both as professor and as politician. He was appointed professor of rational mechanics at the Science Faculty in Bucharest. The next year (1879), Haret became a correspondent member of the Romanian Academy, receiving full membership in 1892. He kept the professorship at the Science Faculty until his retirement in 1910, when he was followed as professor of mechanics by Dimitrie Pompeiu. From 1882 he was also a professor of analytical geometry at the *Bridges and Roads' School in Bucharest*. After retirement, Haret occasionally lectured at the informal *People's University*.

Haret was the Minister of Public Education in three liberal governments, between 1897–1899, 1901–1904 and 1907–1910. As Minister of Education he ran a complete reform, basically building the modern Romanian education system. **Scientific activity **Haret’s major scientific contribution was made in 1878, in his Ph.D. thesis *Sur l’invariabilité des grandes axes des orbites planétaires*. At the time it was known that planets disturb each other’s orbits, thus deviating from the elliptic motion described by Johannes Kepler’s First Law. Pierre Laplace (in 1773) and Joseph Louis Lagrange (in 1776) had already studied the problem, both of them showing that the major axes of the orbits are stable, by using a first degree approximation of the perturbing forces. In 1808 Siméon Denis Poisson had proved that the stability also holds when using second degree approximations. In his thesis, Haret proved by using third degree approximations that the axes are not stable as previously believed, but instead feature a time variability, which he called *secular perturbations*. This result implies that planetary motion is not absolutely stable. Henri Poincaré considered this result *a great surprise *and continued Haret’s research, which eventually led him to the creation of chaos theory. Félix Tisserand recommended the extension of Haret's method to other astronomic problems and, much later, in 1955, Jean Meffroy restarted Haret’s research using new techniques.

**Spiru C. Haret **Statue in University Square, Bucharest

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Soon after his return to Romania, Haret abandoned research, focusing for the rest of his life on teaching and, as Minister of Education, on the reform of the education system. He only published an article on the secular acceleration of the Moon in 1880 and one on Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (1912). In 1910 he published *Social mechanics*, which used mathematics to explain social behaviour (somehow anticipating the fictional "psychohistory" branch of mathematics developed by Hari Seldon, the fictional character of Isaac Asimov's *Foundation*, published 40 years later).

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