ÂÆô 943 Þ2 ́2Â, 14 ÚàôÈÆê 2012
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Dr. Bilezikian is Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at the College of Physicians & Surgeons, ColumbiaUniversity and is Chief of the Division of Endocrinology
úÈÆ¶2ðÊÆ2Úàì, Î2Ø úÈÆ¶2ðÊÆ2ÚÆ ìð2Ú-2
Ú2Îà ́ ́2 ̧2Èo2Ü
oñμ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝáõÙ Ëûëù ¿ ·ÝáõÙ ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Ù3ëÇÝ, ÁÝ1áõÝáõ3Í ¿ Ñ3Ù3- ñ»É, ÇëÏ ß3ï»ñÝ ¿É 3Û1å¿ë 3ñï3Û3ÛïõáõÙ »Ý, áñ 3Û1 Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç ·ÉáõËÁa ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3- ·3ÑÝ ¿ 3ÝÏ3Ë, Ã¿ ÇÝã ¿ Ýñ3 3ÝáõÝ 31⁄2·3ÝáõÝÁ: Æñ3Ï3ÝáõÙ, Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3- Ï3ñ·Á ·ÉáõË ãáõÝÇ, »õ 3Û1 ÇëÏ å3ï×3éáí Ã»ñ»õë 1ñ3 ¦·ÉË3ïáõÙÁ§ 13ñÓ»É ¿ ã3÷31⁄23Ýó 1Åáõ3ñ, »õ 1ñ3 1¿Ù å3Ûù3ñÇ 3é3õ»É 3ñ1ÇõÝ3õ¿ï ï3ñμ»ñ3ÏÁ å3ñ1⁄23å¿ë ¦3Ý13Ù3Ñ3- ïáõÙÝ§ ¿:
ÀÝ1 áñáõÙ, ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç ¦3Ý·ÉáõË§ ¿áõÃÇõÝÁ áã Ã¿ Çñ»ñÇ å3ï3Ñ3Ï3Ý 13- ë3õáñáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï»õ3Ýù ¿ Ï3Ù 3ñ1ÇõÝù, 3ÛÉ ÙÇ3Ý·3Ù 3ÛÝ Ùï3Íáõ3Í Ï3éáõóáõ3Íù, ÇÝãÁ ûÉÇ·3ñËÇ3Ý Ï3Ù 3õ»ÉÇ ×Çß1 ùñ»3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Á 13ñÓñ»É ¿ 3é3õ»É3·áÛÝë 3ÝËá- ó»ÉÇ:
oÃ¿ ËÝ1ÇñÁ ÉÇÝ¿ñ ÙÇ3ÛÝ ·ÉáõËÁa ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇÝ Ñ»é3óÝ»ÉÁ, 3å3 Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ý 3Ý- Ï3ëÏ3Í ß3ï 3õ»ÉÇ ßáõï ÏÁ ÉÇÝ¿ñ Ï31⁄2Ù3ù3Ý1áõ3Í, »õ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ ã¿ñ ¿É Ñ3ëóÝÇ 13é- Ý3É Ý3Ë3·3Ñ: ́3Ûó, Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç ¿3Ï3Ý 3é3ÝÓÝ3Û3ïÏáõÃÇõÝÝ 3ÛÝ ¿, áñ 1¿ Çõñ¿ ·ÉËÇ å3- ñ3·3ÛáõÙ, 1¿ ý3Ïïû 3ÛÝ ·áÛáõÃÇõÝ ãáõÝÇ, áõ Áëï ¿áõÃ»3Ý ëï3óõáõÙ ¿ ï3ñûñÇÝ3Ï áõ 3é»ÕÍ- áõ3Í3ÛÇÝ ÙÇ Çñ3íÇ×3Ïa »ñμ áñù3Ý 3õ»ÉÇ áõÅ·ÇÝ ¿ñ Ñ3ñáõ3ÍÇ ï3Ï 1ÝáõÙ ·ÉáõËÁ, 3ÛÝù3Ý Ù3ñÙÇÝÝ Çñ»Ý ëÏëáõÙ ¿ 3Ùáõñ 1⁄2·3É »õ Ñ3ñÏ »Õ3Í 1¿åùáõÙ Ï3ñáÕ ¿ 3Ý·3Ù 1⁄2áÑ3μ»ñ»É 1¿ Çõñ¿ ·ÉáõËÁ, ù3ÝÇ áñ 1¿ ý3Ïïû 3ÛÝ μ3ó3ñÓ3Ï3å¿ë Ï3å ãáõÝÇ Ù3ñÙÝÇ ýáõÝÏóÇáÝ3- ÉáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï:
̧3 Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Ï3ñ»õáñ 3é3ÝÓÝ3Û3ïÏáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇó Ù¿ÏÝ ¿, áñÝ áõÝÇ 3ÙμáÕçáõÃ»3Ùμ Ñ3ëÏ3óáõ»Éáõ 3ÝÑñ3Å»ßïáõÃÇõÝ, 3ÛÉ3å¿ë ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3- Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç 1¿Ù å3Ûù3ñÁ ÏÁ ÝÙ3ÝáõÇ ÑáÕÙ3Õ3óÝ»ñÇ 1¿Ù å3Ûù3ñÇ:
̧3 3Ù»Ý»õÇÝ ãÇ Ýß3Ý3ÏáõÙ, Ã¿ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÁ 3ÝÙ3ëÝ ¿ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3- Ï3ñ·Çó: 2Ù»Ý»õÇÝ: Ü3 ÁÝ13Ù¿ÝÁ Ñ3Ý1Çë3ÝáõÙ ¿ 3Û1 Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Ù3ëÝÇÏÝ»ñÇó Ù¿ÏÁ, ÏñÏÇÝa 3ÝÏ3Ë 3ÝáõÝ-31⁄2·3ÝáõÝÇó:
Ð»ï»õ3μ3ñ, åÝ1áõÙÝ»ñÁ, Ã¿ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇÝ Ñ»é3óÝ»Éáí ÑÝ3ñ3õáñ ¿ ÷áË»É Ñ3- Ù3Ï3ñ·Á Ï3Ù ã¿1⁄2áù3óÝ»É ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ 13ëÝ Çñ 3ñïûÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáí Ñ3Ý1»ñÓ, ÷áùñ ÇÝã Ïïñáõ3Í »Ý Ñ3Û3ëï3Ý»3Ý Çñ3Ï3ÝáõÃÇõÝÇó, ÇÝãÝ Ç 1¿å, å3ñ1⁄2áñáß Ç óáÛó ¿ 1ñõáõÙ Ð3Û3ë- ï3ÝáõÙ ÁÝ11ÇÙáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ å3Ûù3ñÇ 3Ý3ñ1ÇõÝ3õ¿ïáõÃ»3Ùμ: 2Û1 å3Ûù3ñÝ»ñÁ Ùßï3å¿ë ÃÇñ3Ë »Ý 13ñÓñ»É ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÇÝ, ÇÝãÇ 3ñ1ÇõÝùáõÙ ¿É ÷3ëï3óÇ 3Ùñ3ó»É ¿ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ 13ëÇ ÇßË3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ, ÇëÏ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÝ ÁÝ13Ù¿ÝÁ í»ñ3Íáõ»É »Ý 1ñ3 ÙÇ Ù3ëÝÇÏÇ:
Àëï 3Ù»Ý3ÛÝÇ, 3ÝÑñ3Å»ßï ¿ ÷áË»É å3Ûù3ñÇ Ù3ñï3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ: ÀÝ1 áñáõÙ, 13 3Ù»- Ý»õÇÝ ãÇ Ýß3Ý3ÏáõÙ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ3Ý»É ÃÇñ3ËÇó: Ð3Ï3é3ÏÁ, Ýñ3Ýó íñ3Û ×Ýßáõ- ÙÁ å¿ïù ¿ 3é3õ»É Ù»Í ÉÇÝÇ, μ3Ûó áã Ã¿ Ñ»é3Ý3Éáõ, 3ÛÉ Ñ»é3óÝ»Éáõ 3éáõÙáí: 2ÛëÇÝùÝ, ·áñ- ÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ íñ3Û å¿ïù ¿ Ñ3Ýñ3ÛÝûñ¿Ý 1ñáõÇ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ 13ëÁ ï3ññ 3é ï3ññ Ñ»- é3óÝ»Éáõ »õ 1ñ3 ÷áË3ñ¿Ý ë3ÑÙ3Ý31ñ3Ï3Ý Ï3ñ·Ç ï3ññ»ñÁ Ñ»ï»õáÕ3Ï3Ýûñ¿Ý Ï»3Ýù Ý»ñÙáõÍ»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ:
ÆÝã Ëûëù, 3é3õ»É ·3ÛÃ3ÏÕÇã »õ 3ñ1ÇõÝ3õ¿ï ¿ ÃõáõÙ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇÝ Ñ»é3óÝ»Éáõ ÙÇçáóáí Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Á ÷áË»Éáõ ï3ñμ»ñ3ÏÁ: ê3Ï3ÛÝ, ËÝ1ÇñÝ 3ÛÝ ¿, áñ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3- Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Û»Ý3ñ3ÝÁ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÁ ã¿: Ð3Ï3é3ÏÁa 3Û1 Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ý ¿ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ Û»Ý3ñ3ÝÁ:
ÆëÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Û»Ý3ñ3ÝÁ, áñù3Ý ¿É ï3ñûñÇÝ3Ï ÉÇÝÇ, Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3Ï3Ý Ùï3ÍáÕáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿, Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3Ï3Ý É3ÛÝ ß»ñï»ñÁ, áñáÝù 3Ûë Ï3Ù 3ÛÝ Ï»ñå ë»ñï3×3Í »Ý Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Ñ»ï »õ Ï3ñáÕ »Ý ÷áÕáó 1áõñë ·3É 3Ûë Ï3Ù 3ÛÝ ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ, Ï3Ù ÙÇ ËáõÙμ ûÉÇ·3ñËÝ»ñÇ å3Ñ3Ý- çáí:
2õ»ÉÇÝ, ÇßË3ÝáõÃ»3Ý »õ μÇ1⁄2Ý»ëÇ Û3Ýó3õáñ ë»ñï3×Ù3Ý Ñ»ï»õ3Ýùáí ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç »õ å»ï3Ï3Ý ÇßË3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ë3ÑÙ3ÝÁ ÉÕá1⁄2áõ»É ¿ 3Ý×3Ý3ã»ÉÇáõÃ»3Ý 3ëïÇ×3Ý, ÇÝãÁ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·ÇÝ ÑÝ3ñ3õáñáõÃÇõÝ ¿ ï3ÉÇë Ñ3ë3ñ3ÏáõÃ»3ÝÁ Ï3é3í3ñ»É Ý3»õ ïÝï»ë3- Ï3Ý 1⁄23Ý31⁄23Ý ë3μáï3ÅÝ»ñÇ »õ Ù3ÝÇåáõÉÇ3óÇ3Ý»ñÇ ßÝáñÑÇõa ·Ý»ñÇ ÏïñáõÏ ï3ï3ÝáõÙ- Ý»ñ, ÷áË3ñÅ¿ùÇ ÏïñáõÏ ï3ï3ÝáõÙÝ»ñ, áñáÝù 3é3ç3óÝáõÙ »Ý ù3áë3ÛÇÝ íÇ×3Ï »õ μÝ3Ï- ãáõÃ»3Ý ·Çï3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý ÷áË3ñ¿Ý 3é3ç »Ý ÙÕáõÙ μÝ31⁄21Ý»ñÁ:
ÆëÏ 1ñ3 Ñ»ï»õ3Ýùáí, μÝ3ÏãáõÃ»3Ý ÙÇ 1⁄2·3ÉÇ Ù3ëÁ μÝ31⁄213μ3ñ áã Ã¿ 1áõñë ¿ ·3ÉÇë Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç 1¿Ù, 3ÛÉ ·áñÍ3ñùÇ ¿ ·ÝáõÙ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç Ñ»ï, ÇÝùÝ3å3ßïå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý »õ ÇÝùÝ3- å3Ñå3ÝÙ3Ý Ñ3ñó»ñÝ 3Û1å¿ë ÉáõÍ»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ: ̧3 3Ûëå¿ë 3ë3Í Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý 3é3ÝÓÝ3Û3ï- ÏáõÃ»3Ý 1ñë»õáñáõÙÝ ¿, »ñμ μáÉáñÁ 1Å·áÑ »Ý Çñ3íÇ×3ÏÇó, μ3Ûó 1Å·áÑáõÃÇõÝÁ ·áñÍá- ÕáõÃ»3Ý »Ý í»ñ3ÍáõÙ 3Û1 Çñ3íÇ×3ÏáõÙ ßñç3ÝóÇÏ ×3Ý3å3ñÑáí 3ÝÓÝ3Ï3Ý Ñ3ñó»ñÁ ÉáõÍ»- Éáõ, áã Ã¿ Ñ3õ3ù3Ï3Ý ÁÝ1í1⁄2Ù3Ý ÙÇçáóáí:
2Û1å¿ë 3é3ç3ÝáõÙ ¿ ù3Õ3ù3óÇ3Ï3Ý μ3ËÙ3Ý íï3Ý·, »ñμ ù3Õ3ù3óÇÝ»ñÁ 1áõñë »Ý ·3ÉÇë ù3Õ3ù3óÇÝ»ñÇ 1¿Ù, ÇëÏ å3ï»ñ31⁄2ÙÇ ¦»ñÏÏáÕÙ§ Ññ3Ù3Ý3ï3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ëï3ÝÓÝáõÙ ¿ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Á:
Ð3Ù3Ï3ñ·Ç 1¿Ù å3Ûù3ñÇ ï»ë3ÝÏÇõÝÇó 3Û1 3Ù¿ÝÁ Ñ3ßáõÇ ã3éÝ»ÉÁ Ñ3õ3ë3ñ31⁄2ûñ ¿ 3ÝÛ3çáÕáõÃ»3Ý »õ 3Ý3ñ1ÇõÝ3õ»ïáõÃ»3Ý:
ÆÝã Ëûëù, ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ Ï3ÙùÇó Ï3Ëáõ3Í ¿ ß3ï μ3Ý: ́3Ûó ·ÉË3õáñ ËÝ1ÇñÝ ¿É Ñ»Ýó 3ÛÝ ¿, áñ ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃÇõÝÁ Ý»ñÏ3ÛáõÙ Ï3Ëáõ3Í ¿ áã Ã¿ Ñ3ë3ñ3- ÏáõÃ»3Ý, 3ÛÉ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇ3ÛÇ Ï3ÙùÇó:
ÀÝ1 áñáõÙ, ûñÇÝ3Ï, ́3ñ·3õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ¦ëÇñ3Ë3Õ»ñÁ§ ÎáÝ·ñ¿ëÇ Ñ»ï ÛáõßáõÙ »Ý, áñ ùñ¿3ûÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Á Ñ3ñÏ »Õ3Í 1¿åùáõÙ å3ïñ3ëï ¿ Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3Ï3Ý é»ëáõñëÝ û·- ï3·áñÍ»É ·áñÍáÕ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ, ÇÝù1⁄2ÇÝùÁ å3Ñå3Ý»Éáõ ÝÏ3ï3éáõÙÇó »ÉÝ»Éáí: îáõ»3É å3ñ3·3ÛáõÙ ÎáÝ·ñ¿ëÇ Ñ»ï ·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý ¿ ·ÝáõÙ áã Ã¿ ́ÐÎ-Ý, 3ÛÉ Ñ3Ù3- Ï3ñ·Áa ́ÐÎ-Ç 3Ýáõ3Ý Ý»ñùáÛ:
̧3 1⁄23ñÙ3Ý3ÉÇ ¿É ã¿, áñáíÑ»ï»õ Ç ï3ñμ»ñáõÃÇõÝ Ñ3Ýñ3ÛÇÝ 3é3ç31¿Ù ß»ñï»ñÇ, ùñ¿3û- ÉÇ·3ñËÇÏ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Á Ð3Û3ëï3ÝáõÙ ß3ï 3õ»ÉÇ Ñ3Ù3ñÅ¿ù ¿ ·ïÝáõ»É ·ñ»Ã¿ μáÉáñ Çñ3íÇ- ×3ÏÝ»ñÇ Ñ3Ý1¿å »õ Ï3Û3óñ»É ß3ï 3õ»ÉÇ åñ3·Ù3ïÇÏ »õ ×ß·ñÇï áñáßáõÙÝ»ñ, ÇÝãÇ ·ÉË3õáñ å3ï×3éÝ 3ÛÝ ¿, áñ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·Á ß3ï 3õ»ÉÇ É3õ ¿ ×3Ý3ãáõÙ Ñ3ë3ñ3ÏáõÃ»3ÝÁ, ù3Ý Ñ3ë3- ñ3ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·ÇÝ:
üð2Üê2ÚÆ Ü2Ê2¶2ÐÀ Ð2ô2î2ðÆØ ÎÀ ØÜ2Ú Ð2Ú Ð2Ø2ÚÜøÆÜ îàô2Ì ÊàêîàôØÆÜ
üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ üñ3Ýëáõ3 úÉ3Ýï
üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ üñ3Ýëáõ3 úÉ3Ýï ÏÁ ß3ñáõÝ3Ï¿ 3ç3ÏóÇÉ Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3Ýáõ- Ã»3Ý ÅËïÙ3Ý Ñ3Ù3ñ ùñ¿3Ï3Ý å3ïÇÅ ë3ÑÙ3ÝáÕ ûñÇÝ3·ÇÍÇ ÁÝ1áõÝÙ3Ý, Ñ3Ï3é3Ï 3ÛÝ μ3ÝÇÝ, áñ ÙÇ ù3ÝÇ ûñ 3é3ç, üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ 3ñï3ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó Ý3Ë3ñ3ñÁ Û3ÛïÝ3Í ¿ñ, Ã¿ 3Û1 ûñÇÝ3·ÇÍÇÝ 3ÛÉ»õë ã»Ý í»ñ313éÝ3ñ:
¦Ü3Ë3·3ÑÇ 1ÇñùáñáßáõÙÁ 3Ûë Ñ3ñóáí Ûëï3Ï ¿: 2Ý Ý3ËÁÝïñ3Ï3Ý ßñç3ÝÇÝ Ëáë- ïáõÙ ïáõ3Í ¿ Ñ3Û Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇÝ »õ Ñ3õ3ï3ñÇÙ ÏÁ ÙÝ3Û 3Û1 ËáëïáõÙÇÝ§, - ¦üñ3Ýë÷ñ»ë§ ·áñÍ3Ï3ÉáõÃ»3Ý Áë3Í ¿ 3⁄4ÉÇ1⁄2¿Ç å3É3ïÇ Ù¿Ï Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõóÇãÁ:
¦Ø»Ýù å¿ïù ¿ ·ïÝ»Ýù ×3Ý3å3ñÑ ÙÁ, áñ Ýáñ ûñÇÝ3·ÇÍÇ μÝ3·ÇñÁ Ñ3Ù3å3ï3ëË3Ý ÁÉÉ3Û ê3ÑÙ3Ý31ñáõÃ»3Ý§, - ¦üñ3Ýë÷ñ»ë§-ÇÝ Áë3Í ¿ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý å3É3ïÇ å3ßïûÝ- »3Ý:
ÜáÛÝ 3ÕμÇõñÁ Ý3»õ Ñ3ëï3ï3Í ¿, áñ 3Ýó3Í ß3μ3Ã3í»ñçÇÝ, 3ñï3ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó Ý3Ë3- ñ3ñ Èáñ3Ý ü3åÇáõëÇ 3ÕÙÏ3Û3ñáÛó Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃ»Ý¿Ý Û»ïáÛ, Ý3Ë3·3Ñ úÉ3Ýï Ñ»é3Ëû- ëáí 1⁄2ñáÛó áõÝ»ó3Í ¿ üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñåáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·áÕ ËáñÑáõñ- 1Ç Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõóÇãÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï:
ØÇõë ÏáÕÙ¿, üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ù¿ç ÉáÛë ï»ëÝáÕ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý ¦È¿ ÜÇõí»É 2ñÙ»ÝÇ§ Ã»ñÃÁ ÏÁ Ñ3- Õáñ1¿, Ã¿ Í»ñ3Ïáõï3Ï3Ý üÇÉÇ÷ Î3Éï»Ýå3Ë, Ý3Ù3Ï áõÕ3ñÏ3Í ¿ üñ3Ýë3ÛÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇÝ, Ì»ñ3ÏáÛïÇÝ »õ 21⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÅáÕáíÇÝa ËÝ1ñ»Éáí 3ßË3ï3Ýù3ÛÇÝ ËáõÙμ ëï»ÕÍ»Éa ò»Õ3ëå3- ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ù3ëÇÝ ûñ¿ÝùÁ Ùß3Ï»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ:
¦ÊáñÑñ13ñ3ÝÁ ÙÝ3ÛáõÝ Ï»ñåáí 3é3ç3Ù3ñïÇÏ »Õ3Í ¿ ÅËïáÕ3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý 1¿Ù å3Û- ù3ñÇÝ »õ 3ÛÅÙ ÏñÏÇÝ å¿ïù ¿ Éáõñç 1»ñ3Ï3ï3ñáõÃÇõÝ áõÝ»Ý3Û 3Ûë Ñ3ñóáí§, - Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ3Í ¿ Í»ñ3Ïáõï3Ï3ÝÁ:
ÂáõñùÇáÛ Ù¿ç ë3Ï3ÛÝ, 1⁄2·áõß3õáñáõÃ»3Ùμ Ïÿ3ñÓ3·3Ý·»Ý ö3ñÇ1⁄2¿Ý »ÏáÕ 3Ûë ï»Õ»- ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÝ:
ÂáõñùÇáÛ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ 2μïáõÉ3 ÎÇõÉ ÏÁ ß3ñáõÝ3Ï¿ åÝ1»É, áñ Çñ »õ úÉ3ÝïÇ ÙÇç»õ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó3Í 1¿Ù 3é 1¿Ù Ñ3Ý1ÇåáõÙÁ ß3ï É3õ 3Ýó3Í ¿ »õ Çñ»Ýù Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ3Í »Ý 3Ùñ3åÝ1»É Û3ñ3μ»ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁa »ñÏÏáÕÙ ß3Ñ»ñáõ ÑÇÙ3Ý íñ3Û:
¶oðØ2ÜÆàÚ ì2ðâ2äoîÀ ØoðÄ2Ì 3⁄4 Ð2Úàò
òoÔ2êä2ÜàôÂo2Ü ÄÊîØ2Ü ̧3⁄4Ø ä2Ð2ÜæÀ
ÆÝÃÁñÝ»Ã3ÛÇÝ ùáõ¿3ñÏáõÃ»3Ùμ å3ñ1⁄2áõ3Í ¿ áñ, 157.000 ·»ñÙ3Ý3óÇ ÏÁ ÷3÷3ùÇ, áñ Ï3é3í3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ûñ¿Ýù ÁÝ1áõÝÇa Ð3Ûáó ò»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ñùáõÙÁ ùñ¿3Ï3Ý3óÝ»Éáõ í»- ñ3μ»ñ»3É:
¦èáÛÃÁñ1⁄2§ ¶áñÍ3Ï3ÉáõÃÇõÝÁ ÏÁ ï»Õ»Ï3óÝ¿ áñ, ÝÙ3Ý ÷áñÓÁ, áñ 3ñ1¿Ý Ï3ï3ñ3Í ¿ üñ3Ýë3Ý, Ù»Í3å¿ë åÇïÇ íÝ3ë¿ ÂáõñùÇáÛ‘ Ï3ñ»õáñ 3é»õïñ3ÛÇÝ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñáç Ñ»ï Û3ñ3μ»- ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÝ »õ ÏÁ Ýß¿, áñ ¶»ñÙ3ÝÇáÛ í3ñã3å»ï 2ÝÏ»É3 Ø»ñù»É Ù»ñÅ3Í ¿ ÝáÛÝÇëÏ ùÝÝ3ñÏ»É 1⁄23ÛÝ ùáõ¿3ñÏáõÃ»3Ý Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï:
øáõ¿3ñÏáõÃÇõÝÁ Ï3ï3ñáõ3Í ¿ ¶»ñÙ3ÝÇáÛ Ï3é3í3ñáõÃ»3Ý ¦oñÏËûëáõÃÇõÝ 3å3·3ÛÇ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É§ Ý3Ë3Ó»éÝáõÃ»3Ý ÇÝÃÁñÝ»Ã3ÛÇÝ Ñ3ñóÙ3Ý ÍÇñ¿Ý Ý»ñë, áñ Ýå3ï3Ï áõÝÇ μ3- ñ»É3õ»Éáõ ëáíáñ3Ï3Ý ·»ñÙ3Ý3óÇÝ»ñáõ Ï»3ÝùÁ ¶»ñÙ3ÝÇáÛ Ù¿ç:
¶»ñÙ3ÝÇáÛ Ù¿ç í»ñç»ñë 3×áÕ ÙÇïáõÙ 13ñÓ3Í ¿ Ñ3Ù3ó3ÝóÇ ÙÇçáóáí ù3Õ3ù3óÇÝ»ñÁ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý Ñ3ñó»ñáõ Ù¿ç Ý»ñ·ñ3õ»ÉÁ:
oûÃÁ ï3ñÇ 3é3ç ¶»ñÙ3ÝÇáÛ ËáñÑñ13ñ3ÝÁ ÁÝ1áõÝ3Í ¿ñ ÙÇ3Ó3ÛÝ áñáßáõÙ, 2005 Ãáõ3- Ï3ÝÇ 2åñÇÉ 24-ÇÝ Ð3Ûáó ó»Õ3ëå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý 90-ñ1 ï3ñ»ÉÇóÇ 3éÃÇõ, 3é3Ýó ¦ó»Õ3ëå3Ýáõ- ÃÇõÝ§ μ3éÁ û·ï3·áñÍ»Éáõ, Ïáã ÁÝ»Éáí ÂáõñùÇáÛa ÁÝ1áõÝÇÉ Ñ3Û»ñáõ 1¿Ù Çñ3·áñÍ3Í ç3ñ1»- ñÁ »õ Ý3»õ ó3õ Û3ÛïÝ»Éáí, áñ ¶»ñÙ3ÝÇ3Ý ç3Ýù 3Ý·3Ù ã¿ñ ·áñÍ31ñ3Í, Ï3Ý·Ý»óÝ»Éáõ 3Û1 á×ñ3·áñÍáõÃÇõÝÁ‘ Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñåáõ3Í ï»Õ3Ñ3ÝáõÙÝ»ñáõ »õ μÝ3çÝçÙ3Ý Ù3ëÇÝ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÇõÝ- Ý»ñ áõÝ»Ý3Éáí Ñ3Ý1»ñÓ:
êöÆôèøÆ Ü2Ê2ð2ðàôÂÆôÜÀ ÎÀ Þ2ðàôÜ2Î3⁄4 2ÞÊ2î2ÜøÜoðÀ êàôðÆàÚ Ð2Ú Ð2Ø2ÚÜøÆÜ Ðoî
Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõÃ»3Ý ë÷ÇõéùÇ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ÏÁ ï»Õ»Ï3óÝ¿, áñ ÏÁ ß3ñáõ- Ý3ÏáõÇÝ 3ßË3ï3ÝùÝ»ñÁ êáõñÇáÛ Ñ3Û Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇÝ, 3ÛÝï»Õ ·áñÍáÕ Ï3éáÛóÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï: êáõñÇ- 3Ñ3Û»ñÁ ÏÁ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóÇÝ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý ¦ê÷Çõéù§ 3Ù3éÝ3ÛÇÝ 1åñáóÇ, ¦2ñÇ ïáõÝ§ Íñ3- ·ÇñÝ»ñáõÝ: ¦ÆÙ Ð3Û3ëï3Ý§ Ñ3Ù3Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý ÷3é3ïûÝÇ ßñç3·ÇÍ¿Ý Ý»ñë ¦2Ý1ñ3ÝÇÏ§ å3- ñ3ÛÇÝ Ñ3ÙáÛÃÁ »Õ3Í ¿ 2ßÝ3Ï, Ô3ñ3μ3Õ, Ñ3Ý1¿ë åÇïÇ ·3Û ÷3ÏÙ3Ý 3ñ3ñáÕáõÃ»3Ý Å3Ù3- Ý3Ï: ê÷ÇõéùÇ »ñÇï3ë3ñ1Ý»ñáõÝ ¦2ñÇ ïáõÝ§ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ×3Ý3ãáÕ3Ï3Ý 3Ûó»ÉáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ Íñ3·ñÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇó ëáõñÇ3Ñ3Û»ñÁ Ï°3åñÇÝ Ñ3Û3ëï3ÝóÇ ÁÝï3ÝÇùÝ»ñáõ Ù¿ç »õ ÏÁ Ù3ëÝ3Ï- óÇÝ μáÉáñ Ó»éÝ3ñÏÝ»ñáõÝ:
Ü3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝ Ï°3Ûó»É»Ý Ý3»õ ëáõñÇ3Ñ3Û»ñ ï3ñμ»ñ Ñ3ñó»ñáí, 3é3ç3ñÏáõÃÇõÝÝ»- ñáí: Ü3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ÏÁ Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3ÏóÇ ÐÐ ï3ñ3Íù3ÛÇÝ Ï3é3í3ñÙ3Ý Ý3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý ·3ÕÃ3Ï3ÝáõÃ»3Ý å»ï3Ï3Ý Í3é3ÛáõÃ»3Ý, ÐÐ áëïÇÏ3ÝáõÃ»3Ý 3ÝÓÝ3·ñ3ÛÇÝ »õ íÇ1⁄23Ý»- ñáõ í3ñãáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï, áñáÝù ûñ¿Ýùáí ë3ÑÙ3Ýáõ3Í Ï3ñ·áí ÏÁ Ù3ïáõó»Ý Í3é3ÛáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ: Ü3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ÏÁ 1⁄2μ3ÕÇ ëáõñÇ3Ñ3Û»ñáõ É»1⁄2áõÇ áõëáõóÙ3Ý ÑÇÙÝ3Ñ3ñó»ñáí:
Ð2Ø2Ü2Ê2¶2ÐÜoðÀ ÎðÎÆÜ Ú2Úî2ð2ðàôØ oÜa Ô2ð2 ́2ÔÀ ÎÀ ØÆ2Ü2Ú ́2Ü2ÎòàôÂÆôÜÜoðÆÜ
o2ÐÎ ØÇÝëÏÇ ËáõÙμÇ Ñ3Ù3Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ña Å3Ï üáñ èáμ»ñ1 ́ñ31ïÏ¿ »õ Æ·áñ äáåáí
o2ÐÎ ØÇÝÏëÇ ËÙμÇ Ñ3Ù3Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÁ êï»÷3Ý3Ï»ñïáõÙ ÚáõÉÇë 11-ÇÝ ÏñÏÇÝ Û3Ûï3- ñ3ñ»óÇÝ, Ã¿ μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ ¦áñáß3ÏÇ ÷áõÉáõÙ§ È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÁ ÏÁ ÙÇ3Ý3Û μ3- Ý3Ïó3ÛÇÝ ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óÇÝ‘ 3é3Ýó ÏáÝÏñ»ï Å3ÙÏ¿ï Ýß»Éáõ:
èáõë3ëï3ÝóÇ Ñ3Ù3Ý3Ë3·3Ñ Æ·áñ äáåáíÁ Û3õ»É»ó. - ¦oë Ï3ñáÕ »Ù »ÝÃ31ñ»É, áñ »ñμ ëÏëáõÇ 3é3ñÏ3Û3Ï3Ý 3ßË3ï3ÝùÁ Ë3Õ3ÕáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ó3ÛÝ3·ñÇ íñ3Û, μ3Ý3ÏóáÕ ÏáÕÙ»ñÇ ýáñÙ3ïÁ Ï3ñáÕ ¿ ÁÝ1É3ÛÝáõ»É§:
oõñáå3ÛáõÙ 3Ýíï3Ý·áõÃ»3Ý »õ Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñåáõÃ»3Ý (o2ÐÎ) ØÇÝë- ÏÇ ËÙμÇ Ñ3Ù3Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÁ‘ èáμ»ñ1 ́ñ31ïÏ¿Ý (2ØÜ), Å3Ï üáñÁ (üñ3ÝëÇ3) »õ Æ·áñ äáåá- íÁ (èáõë3ëï3Ý), ÝáÛÝ ûñÁ 31ñμ»ç3Ý3Ï3Ý ÏáÕÙÇó Ñ3ï»É »Ý Õ3ñ3μ3Õ3-31ñμ»ç3Ý3Ï3Ý ß÷Ù3Ý ·ÇÍÁ, »õ Ùûï 1.5 Å3Ù3Ýáó Ñ3Ý1ÇåáõÙ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ ́3Ïû ê3Ñ3Ï»3ÝÇ »õ 3ñï·áñÍÝ3Ë3ñ3ñÇ å3ßïûÝ3Ï3ï3ñ ì3ëÇÉÇ 2Ã3ç3Ý»3ÝÇ Ñ»ï:
Àëï å3ßïûÝ3Ï3Ý Ñ3Õáñ13·ñáõÃ»3Ý, Ñ3Ý1ÇåÙ3Ý ÁÝÃ3óùáõÙ ́3Ïû ê3Ñ3Ï»3ÝÁ Ïáã ¿ 3ñ»É Ñ3Ù3Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÇÝ ¦ß3ñáõÝ3Ï»É Çñ»Ýó 3ßË3ï3ÝùÁ 21ñμ»ç3ÝÇÝ Ï3éáõóáÕ3Ï3Ý ÑáõÝ μ»ñ»Éáõ »õ μ3Ý3Ïó3ÛÇÝ ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óÇ ÉÇ3ñÅ¿ù Ó»õ3ã3÷Á í»ñ3Ï3Ý·Ý»Éáõ áõÕÕáõ- Ã»3Ùμ§:
́3ùõáõÙ »õ êï»÷3Ý3Ï»ñïáõÙ Ñ3Ù3Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ»ñÁ ùÝÝ3ñÏ»É »Ý Ý3»õ ß÷Ù3Ý ·ÍáõÙ ï»- ÕÇ áõÝ»óáÕ ÙÇç31¿å»ñÁ:
2Ý1ñ313éÝ3Éáí ß÷Ù3Ý ·ÍÇó 1ÇåáõÏ3Ñ3ñÝ»ñÇ Ñ»é3óÙ3ÝÁ‘ éáõë3ëï3ÝóÇ Ñ3Ù3Ý3- Ë3·3Ñ Æ·áñ äáåáíÝ 3ë3ó, áñ 13 ¦ó3õáï Ñ3ñó ¿, áñÇ Ù3ëÇÝ »ñÏ3ñ Ëûëáõ»É ¿, μ3Ûó áñÝ 3é3ÛÅÙ ÉáõÍáõ3Í ã¿§:
ê2ð¶êo2Ü ÀÜ ̧àôÜoÈ 3⁄4 Æð2ÜÆ ÜoðøÆÜ ¶àðÌoðÆ
Ü3Ë3·3Ñ ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÝ ÚáõÉÇë 9-ÇÝ ÁÝ1áõÝ»É ¿ Æñ3ÝÇ ÆëÉ3Ù3Ï3Ý Ð3Ýñ3å»ïáõ- Ã»3Ý Ý»ñùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñ ØáëÃ3ý3 ØáÑ3Ù31 Ü3ç3ñÇ ·ÉË3õáñ3Í å3ïáõÇñ3Ïáõ- Ã»3ÝÁ:
ÆÝãå¿ë ÷áË3ÝóáõÙ ¿ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ Ù3ÙáõÉÇ ·ñ3ë»Ý»3ÏÁ, ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÁ »õ ØáëÃ3ý3 ØáÑ3Ù31 Ü3ç3ñÁ »ñÏáõëï»ù Ï3ñ»õáñ»É »Ý Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ù3ñ1⁄2»ñÇ »õ Æñ3ÝÇ Ý3- Ñ3Ý·Ý»ñÇ ÙÇç»õ ÷áË·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý ÁÝ1É3ÛÝáõÙÁ, ÇÝãÁ ÏáÕÙ»ñÇ Ñ3Ùá1⁄2Ù3Ùμ, 3õ»ÉÇ Ïÿ3Ù- ñ3åÝ1Ç ÷áËíëï3ÑáõÃ»3Ý »õ 13ñ»ñÇ ÷áñÓáõÃÇõÝÝ 3Ýó3Í μ3ñ»Ï3ÙáõÃ»3Ý íñ3Û ÑÇÙÝáõ3Í
Ñ3Û-Çñ3Ý3Ï3Ý Û3ñ3μ»ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ: 1⁄4ñáõó3ÏÇóÝ»ñÝ 3Û1 Û3ñ3μ»ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ ë»ñï3óÙ3Ý ·áñÍáõÙ Ï3ñ»õáñ»É »Ý Ý3»õ Çñ3Ý3Ñ3Û Ñ3Ù3ÛÝùÇ 1»ñÁ:
¦oñÏáõ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç»õ Ñ3Ù3·áñÍ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ëáñ3óÙ3Ý »õ 3é3ÝÓÇÝ áÉáñïÝ»ñáõÙ ÷áñ- ÓÇ ÷áË3Ý3ÏÙ3Ý 3éáõÙáí Ñ»é3ÝÏ3ñ3ÛÇÝ ¿ Ñ3Ù3ñáõ»É Ý3»õ Ý3Ë3ñ3ñ ØáÑ3Ù31 Ü3ç3ñÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñ3Í Ý3Ë3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý Ý»ñùáÛ ·ïÝáõáÕ 3ñï3Ï3ñ· Çñ3íÇ×3ÏÝ»ñÇ, Çñ3õ3å3Ñå3- ÝáõÃ»3Ý »õ 3ÛÉ áÉáñïÝ»ñáõÙ Ï3å»ñÇ ë»ñï3óáõÙÁ§, - 3ëáõ3Í ¿ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÇ Ù3ÙáõÉÇ ·ñ3ë»Ý- »3ÏÇ ï3ñ3Í3Í Ñ3Õáñ13·ñáõÃÇõÝáõÙ:
Þ2ðØ21⁄42ÜàìÀ Ð2Î2 ̧2ðÒàôØ 3⁄4 Ø2Øo ̧o2ðàì
Ô3ñ3μ3Õ»3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óáõÙ Éáõñç 3é3çÁÝÃ3óÇ μ3ó3Ï3ÛáõÃ»3Ý áÕç å3ï3ëË3Ý3- ïáõáõÃÇõÝÁ ÏñáõÙ ¿ 31ñμ»ç3Ý3Ï3Ý ÏáÕÙÁ: 2Û1 Ù3ëÇÝ ÚáõÉÇë 9-ÇÝ Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ»É ¿ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ 21⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÅáÕáíÇ ÷áËÝ3Ë3·3Ñ 3⁄41áõ3ñ1 Þ3ñÙ31⁄23ÝáíÁ‘ 3ñÓ3·3Ýù»Éáí ́3ùõáõÙ o2ÐÎ-Ç ·ÉË3õáñ ù3ñïáõÕ3ñ È3Ùμ»ñïû 1⁄43ÝÇ»ñÇ Ñ»ï Ñ3Ù3ï»Õ 3ëáõÉÇëÇ Å3Ù3Ý3Ï 21ñμ»ç3ÝÇ 3ñï·áñÍÝ3Ë3ñ3ñ 3⁄4ÉÙ3ñ Ø3Ù»1Û3ñáíÇ 3ñ3Í Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃ»3ÝÁ:
21ñμ»ç3Ý3Ï3Ý Éñ3ïáõ3Ï3Ý ·áñÍ3Ï3ÉáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ íÏ3ÛáõÃ»3Ùμ‘ ÚáõÉÇë 9-ÇÝ Ï3Û3ó3Í 3ëáõÉÇëÇ Å3Ù3Ý3Ï Ø3Ù»1»3ñáíÁ, Ù3ëÝ3õáñ3å¿ë, 3ë»É ¿. - ¦oÃ¿ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý 1⁄2ÇÝáõ3Í áõÅ»- ñÁ 1áõñë μ»ñáõ»Ý ûÏáõå3óáõ3Í ï3ñ3ÍùÝ»ñÇó, 3å3 ãÇ ÉÇÝÇ á°ã 1ÇåáõÏ3Ñ3ñÝ»ñÇ, á°ã 1⁄2ÇÝ- áõ3Í ÙÇç31¿å»ñÇ ËÝ1Çñ§:
Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ 21⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÅáÕáíÇ Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3ÛÝáõÃ»3Ý Ñ»ï Ï3å»ñÇ í3ñãáõÃ»3Ý ÷áË3Ýó- Ù3Ùμ, Ñ3Ï313ñÓ»Éáí 21ñμ»ç3ÝÇ 3ñï3ùÇÝ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý ·»ñ3ï»ëãáõÃ»3Ý Õ»Ï3í3ñÇÝ‘ Þ3ñÙ31⁄23ÝáíÁ Û3Ûï3ñ3ñ»É ¿. - ¦ä3ñáÝ Ø3Ù»1»3ñáíÝ 21μ»ç3ÝÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñáõÃ»3ÝÁ μÝáñáß Ï»ñåáí ß3ñáõÝ3Ï3μ3ñ Ë»Õ3ÃÇõñáõÙ ¿ Çñ3Ï3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ: ÆëÏ Çñ3Ï3ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ Ñ»ï»õ»3ÉÝ ¿‘ ù3ÝÇ 1»é 21ñμ»ç3ÝÁ ß3ñáõÝ3ÏáõÙ ¿ ûÏáõå3óñ3Í å3Ñ»É È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ Ð3Ýñ3å»- ïáõÃ»3Ý áñáß ï3ñ3ÍùÝ»ñ (¶»ï3ß¿Ý, Ø3ñïáõÝ3ß¿Ý, Þ3ÑáõÙ»3Ý), »õ å3ñμ»ñ3μ3ñ 1Çåáõ- Ï3Ñ3ñÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí Ïñ3Ï μ3óáõÙ Ë3Õ3Õ μÝ3ÏÇãÝ»ñÇ, 3Û1 ÃõáõÙ‘ Ù3ÝÏ3å3ñï¿1⁄2Ç áõÕÕáõ- Ã»3Ùμ, ÈÔ μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ Ë3Õ3Õ Ï3ñ·3õáñÙ3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óáõÙ Éáõñç 3é3çÁÝÃ3óÇ μ3- ó3Ï3ÛáõÃ»3Ý áÕç å3ï3ëË3Ý3ïáõáõÃÇõÝÁ ÏñáõÙ ¿ 31ñμ»ç3Ý3Ï3Ý ÏáÕÙÁ: àõëïÇ, Ï3ñÇù ãÏ3Û ÙáõÃ ë»Ý»3ÏáõÙ Ï3ïáõ ÷Ýïé»É, »ñμ 3Û1 Ï3ïáõÝ ùá áõë»ñÇÝ ¿§:
Ô2ð2 ́2ÔÆ ÀÜîðàôÂÆôÜÜoðÆ 2ÎîÆô Èàôê2 ́2ÜØ2Ü Îàâ‘
Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ ÙÇ ß3ñù Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3Ï3Ý »õ Éñ3·ñáÕ3Ï3Ý Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñåáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ Ñ3Û3ë- ï3Ý»3Ý Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇÝ Ïáã »Ý 3ÝáõÙ 3é3õ»É 3ÏïÇõûñ¿Ý Éáõë3μ3Ý»É È»éÝ3ÛÇÝ Ô3ñ3- μ3ÕáõÙ 3é3çÇÏ3Û Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ ù3ñá1⁄23ñß3õÝ áõ ùáõ¿3ñÏáõÃÇõÝÁ:
Ø¿Ï ï3ëÝ»3ÏÇó 3õ»ÉÇ Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñåáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ, Çñ»Ýó ï3ñ3Í3Í Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý Ù¿ç 3ñÓ3Ý3·ñ»Éáí, áñ Ñ3Û3ëï3Ý»3Ý Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇ 3Ý1ñ313ñÓÁ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3- Ï3Ý-ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý 1⁄23ñ·3óáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ3Ù3ñÅ¿ù ã¿, 3ÝÑñ3Å»ßï »Ý Ñ3Ù3ñáõÙ, áñå¿ë1⁄2Ç Ô3ñ3- μ3ÕÇ Ý3Ë3·3Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñ3å3Ûù3ñÇ ·áÝ¿ í»ñçÇÝ ÷áõÉáõÙ Ñ»ï»õáÕ3Ï3Ý, ß3Ñ3·ñ·Çé áõ åñáý»ëÇáÝ3É Éáõë3μ3ÝáõÙ 3å3ÑáíáõÇ:
Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ý3Ë3ï»ëáõ3Í »Ý ÚáõÉÇëÇ 19-ÇÝ:
Ú3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃ»3Ý Ñ3Ù3Ñ»ÕÇÝ3ÏÝ»ñÇó oñ»õ3ÝÇ Ù3ÙáõÉÇ 3ÏáõÙμÇ Õ»Ï3í3ñ ́áñÇë Ü3- õ3ë3ñ1»3ÝÁ ¦21⁄23ïáõÃÇõÝ§ é31ÇáÏ3Û3ÝÇ Ñ»ï 1⁄2ñáÛóáõÙ Ýß»ó. - ¦Ø»Ýù »ñÏ3ñ ëå3ëáõÙ ¿ÇÝù, Ã¿ »ñμ 3õ»ÉÇ ËáñÁ, 3õ»ÉÇ Ñ»ï3ùñùÇñ »õ μ31⁄2Ù31⁄23Ý Éáõë3μ3ÝáõÙ ÏÁ ÉÇÝÇ Ý3ËÁÝïñ3Ï3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÃ3óÝ»ñÇ Ô3ñ3μ3ÕáõÙ, μ3Ûó 3Û1å¿ë ¿É ãï»ë3Ýù ÑÇÙÝ3Ï3Ý Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáõÙ Ñ3- Ù3å3ï3ëË3Ý Ñ»ï3ùñùñáõÃÇõÝ »õ áõß31ñáõÃÇõÝ§:
¦î»ë¿ù, Ï3ñ Å3Ù3Ý3Ï3ßñç3Ý, »ñμ ï3ñμ»ñ í3ñÏ3ÝÇßÝ»ñáí Ô3ñ3μ3ÕÁ Ñ3Ù3ñõáõÙ ¿ñ Ù3ë3Ùμ 31⁄23ï »ñÏÇñ, ÇÝãå¿ë »õ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÁ: ì»ñç»ñë 3ñ1¿Ý 3Ý31⁄23ï »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ Ù¿ç Û3ÛïÝ- áõ»ó, »õ 3Û1 ïå3õáñáõÃÇõÝÁ Ó»õ3õáñõáõÙ ¿ Ñ»Ýó 3ÛÝ å3ï×3éáí, áñ Ï3ñÍ»ë Ã¿ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý- Ñ3ë3ñ3Ï3Ï3Ý Ï»3ÝùÁ 3Û1ù3Ý 3ÏïÇõ ã¿ 3ÛÝï»Õ »õ Ý3»õ ãÇ Éáõë3μ3ÝõáõÙ, Ñ3Ù3å3ï3ë- Ë3Ý 3ñÓ3·3Ýù ãÇ ·ïÝáõÙ Ñ3Û3ëï3Ý»3Ý Éñ3ïáõ3ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáõÙ§, - ÁÝ1·Í»ó oñ»õ3ÝÇ Ù3Ùáõ- ÉÇ 3ÏáõÙμÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÁ‘ ß3ñáõÝ3Ï»Éáí. - ¦ ̧3 ïå3õáñáõÃÇõÝ ¿ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ, áñ ÙÇ ï»ë3Ï É×3ó- Ù3Ý ·áñÍÁÝÃ3ó ¿ ·ÝáõÙ, »õ, ÇÑ3ñÏ¿, Ý3ËÁÝïñ3Ï3Ý ßñç3ÝÁ ß3ï Û3ñÙ3ñ 3éÇÃ ¿, áñå¿ë1⁄2Ç 3Û1 ïå3õáñáõÃÇõÝÁ ÷áËáõÇ, 3Û1 ïå3õáñáõÃÇõÝÁ Ù»Ýù ÷áñÓ»Ýù ç3ñ1»É§:
ØoÎÜ2ðÎoÈ 3⁄4 9-ð ̧ §àêÎ3⁄4 ÌÆð2Ü¦-À
ÎÇñ3ÏÇ, ÚáõÉÇë 8-Ç »ñ»ÏáÛ»3Ý oñ»õ3ÝÇ ¦ØáëÏáõ3§ ÏÇÝáÃ3ïñáÝáõÙ Ñ3Ý1Çë3íáñáõ- Ã»3Ùμ μ3óáõ»ó ¦àëÏ¿ ÌÇñ3Ý§ 9-ñ1 ÙÇç31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÏÇÝá÷3é3ïûÝÁ:
2Ûë ï3ñÇ ï3ñμ»ñ ÙñóáõÃ3ÛÇÝ Íñ3·ñ»ñáõÙ ÏÁ óáõó31ñáõ»Ý 90-Çó 3õ»ÉÇ ýÇÉÙ»ñ, áñáÝù ÁÝïñáõ»É »Ý Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõ3Í 1200 Û3Ûï»ñÇó:
ö3é3ïûÝÁ Ù»ÏÝ3ñÏ»ó 3Ýó3Í 13ñÇ 20-3Ï3Ý Ãáõ3Ï3ÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ð3Ùû ́»ÏÝ31⁄23ñ»3ÝÇ ÝÏ3ñ3Ñ3Ý3Í ¦Þáñ »õ Þáñßáñ§ ýÇÉÙáí‘ Ýáñ »ñ3Åßï3Ï3Ý Ó»õ3õáñÙ3Ùμ, »õ Ïÿ»1⁄2ñ3÷3ÏáõÇ Î3ÝÝÇ ÷3é3ïûÝÇ 3Ûë ï3ñáõ3Û ·ÉË3õáñ Ùñó3Ý3ÏÇÝ 3ñÅ3Ý3ó3Í ØÇù3Û¿É Ð3ÝÝ»Ï¿Ç ¦ê»ñ§ ýÇÉÙÇ Ù¿Ï μ3ó3éÇÏ óáõó31ñáõÃ»3Ùμ:
2õ3Ý13μ3ñ μ3óÙ3Ý 3ñ3ñáÕáõÃ»3Ý Å3Ù3Ý3Ï ÷3é3ïûÝÇ μ3ñÓñ3·áÛÝ å3ñ·»õÁ‘ ¦ö3- ñ3ç3Ýáí»3Ý Ã3É»ñ§ »Ý Û3ÝÓÝáõÙ å3ïáõ3õáñ ÑÇõñ»ñÇó áõ Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñÇó áÙ3Ýó‘ Ñ3Ù3ß- Ë3ñÑ3ÛÇÝ ÏÇÝá3ñáõ»ëïáõÙ áõÝ»ó3Í Ýß3Ý3Ï3ÉÇ í3ëï3ÏÇ Ñ3Ù3ñ: 2Ûë ï3ñÇ 3Û1 μ3ñÓñ3- ·áÛÝ å3ñ·»õÇÝ 3ñÅ3Ý3ó3Ý Çëå3Ý3óÇ 3Ýáõ3ÝÇ ÏÇÝáé»ÅÇëáñ ìÇÏïáñ 3⁄4ñÇë¿Ý áõ íñ3óÇ Ñ3Ýñ3Û3Ûï ÏÇÝáé»ÅÇëáñ 3⁄4É13ñ Þ»Ý·3É3»3Ý:
3⁄4ñÇë»Ý 3Ûë ï3ñáõ3Û Ë3Õ3ñÏ3ÛÇÝ ÙÇç31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÙñóáõÃ3ÛÇÝ Û3ÝÓÝ3ÅáÕáíÇ Ý3Ë3·3ÑÝ ¿: ÆëÏ Þ»Ý·3É3»3Ý ÷3é3ïûÝÇÝ Ù3ëÝ3Ïó»Éáõ ¿ »Ï»É Ñ3Û31⁄2·Ç é»ÅÇëáñ èáÙ3Ý ́3É3»3ÝÇ Ññ3õ¿ñáí:
¦21⁄23ïáõÃÇõÝ§ é31ÇáÏ3Û3ÝÇ Ñ»ï 1⁄2ñáÛóáõÙ Þ»Ý·3É3»3Ý 3ë3ó, áñ »ñ¿Ï Ùñó3Ý3ÏÁ ëï3Ý3ÉÇë, ó3õûù, ãÇ ÛÇß3ï3Ï»É ê»ñ·¿Û ö3ñ3ç3ÝáíÇ 3ÝáõÝÁ. - ¦oë ß3ï ¿Ç ó3ÝÏ3ÝáõÙ, μ3Ûó Ýñ3 Ù3ëÇÝ áãÇÝã »ñ¿Ï ã3ë3óÇ: ÆëÏ Û»ïáÛ Ùï3ï3ÝçõáõÙ ¿Ç, Ã¿ ÇÝãáõ 3Û1å¿ë ëï3ó- áõ»ó: oë Ýñ3Ý ß3ï ¿Ç ëÇñáõÙ, Ù»Ýù Ññ3ß3ÉÇ ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝù: 2ÝÛÇß»ÉÇ Å3Ù3Ý3ÏÝ»ñÇó ¿ÇÝù ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÇõÝ 3ÝáõÙ, ÙÇ3ëÇÝ áõÕ»õáñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ ¿ÇÝù Ù»ÏÝáõÙ: oë ß3ï áõñ3Ë »Ù, áñ oñ»õ3- ÝáõÙ »Ù, ß3ï »Ù ëÇñáõÙ Ñ3Û ÅáÕáíñ1ÇÝ§:
2ñÓ3·3Ýù»Éáí Ñ3ñóÇÝ, Ã¿ ÇÝãáõ ¿ 3é3çÇÝ 3Ý·3Ù Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÙ ¦àëÏ¿ ÌÇñ3Ý§-ÇÝ‘ íñ3- óÇ é»ÅÇëáñÝ 3ÏÝ3ñÏ»ó, Ã¿ ã¿ÇÝ Ññ3õÇñáõÙ, ÇëÏ ÑÇÙ3 »Ï»É ¿, áñáíÑ»ï»õ Ññ3õ¿ñÇ Ý3Ë3Ó»é- ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ Çñ íñ3Û ¿ñ í»ñóñ»É èáÙ3Ý ́3É3»3ÝÁ:
ì»ñçÇÝë ¦21⁄23ïáõÃÇõÝ§ é31ÇáÏ3Û3ÝÇÝ Ñå3ñïáõÃ»3Ùμ 3ë3ó. - ¦Ð3Ùá1⁄2»óÇ‘ »Ï3õ: ÆÝÓ Ñ3Ù3ñ Ù»Í áõñ3ËáõÃÇõÝ ¿, áñ Ý3 »Ï»É ¿: Î3ñÍáõÙ »Ù, Ñ3Û Ñ3Ý1Çë3ï»ëÁ Ù»Í Ñ3×áÛùáí ÏÁ 1ÇïÇ Þ»Ý·3É3»3ÝÇ 4 ýÇÉÙ»ñÁ, áñáÝù óáõó31ñáõ»Éáõ »Ý 3Ûë ÷3é3ïûÝÇ ÁÝÃ3óùáõÙ§:
Ð2Î-À ÎàÔØ 3⁄4 Ü2Ê2¶2ÐÆ ØÆ2êÜ2Î2Ü ÂoÎÜ2ÌàôÆ
Ð3Û 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÏáÝ·ñ¿ëÁ (Ð2Î) Ëñ3ËáõëáõÙ ¿, áñ ·3ÉÇù ï3ñÇ 3ÝóÏ3óáõ»ÉÇù Ý3Ë3·3- Ñ3Ï3Ý ÁÝïñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ÁÝ11ÇÙ31Çñ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý áõÅ»ñÁ Ñ3Ý1¿ë ·3Ý ÙÇ3ëÝ3Ï3Ý Ã»ÏÝ3- Íáõáí: ¦21⁄23ïáõÃÇõÝ§ é31ÇáÏ3Û3ÝÇ Ñ»ï 1⁄2ñáÛóáõÙ ÝÙ3Ý Û3Ûï3ñ3ñáõÃÇõÝ 3ñ»ó ÎáÝ·ñ¿ëÇ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·áÕ »õ ËáñÑñ13ñ3Ý3Ï3Ý ËÙμ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Õ»Ï3í3ñ È»õáÝ 1⁄4áõñ3μ»3ÝÁ:
ÀÝ1·Í»Éáí, áñ Çñ»Ýó Ñ3Ù3ñ 3Ù»Ý3Ï3ñ»õáñ ËÝ1ÇñÝ ¿ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝáõÙ ÅáÕáíñ13í3ñáõ- Ã»3Ý Û3ÕÃ3Ý3ÏÁ »õ ¦é»ÅÇÙÇó§ 31⁄23ïáõ»ÉÁ, 1⁄4áõñ3μ»3ÝÁ ß3ñáõÝ3Ï»ó. - ¦2Ñ3 Ù»1⁄2 å¿ïù ¿ 3ÛÝåÇëÇ Ã»ÏÝ3Íáõ, áñÁ Ï3ñáÕ3Ý3Û Ù3ñï3Ññ3õ¿ñ Ý»ï»É ê»ñÅ ê3ñ·ë»3ÝÇ é»ÅÇÙÇÝ: ̧3 å¿ïù ¿ ÉÇÝÇ Ù3ñ1, áñÁ, ÙÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, áõÝÇ 3Ù»Ý3Ù»Í ÏáÝëáÉÇ13óÇáÝ ÑÝ3ñ3õáñáõÃÇõÝÁ, Ñ3- Ù3ËÙμÙ3Ý ÑÝ3ñ3õáñáõÃÇõÝÁ, 3ÛëÇÝùÝ‘ ÙÇ Ù3ñ1, áñÇ Ñ»ÕÇÝ3ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ 3ÛÝù3Ý Ñ1⁄2ûñ ¿, 3ÛÝ- ù3Ý 3ÝÑ»ñù»ÉÇ ¿, áñ Ýñ3 ßáõñç ÏÁ Ñ3õ3ùáõ»Ý 3é3õ»É3·áÛÝ ù3Ý3Ïáí ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý áõÅ»ñÁ,
ÙÇõë ÏáÕÙÇó‘ 13 ÉÇÝÇ ÙÇ Ù3ñ1, áñÁ 3ÝÏ3ß3é ¿, é»ÅÇÙÇ Ñ»ï áñ»õ¿ ·áñÍ3ñùÇ ãÇ ·Ý3Û »õ í×é3Ï3Ý ÏÁ ÉÇÝÇ ÙÇÝã»õ í»ñç: Ð3ë3ñ3ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ ÃáÕ 13ïÇ‘ áí Ï3ñáÕ ¿ ÉÇÝ»É 3Û1 Ù3ñ1Á§:
ÆëÏ Ã¿ 3é3çÇÏ3ÛáõÙ ïáõ»3É Ñ3ñóáí ùÝÝ3ñÏáõÙÝ»ñ Ï3Ù μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ÁÝÃ3Ý3Éáõ »Ý 3ñ1»ûù ÁÝ11ÇÙ31Çñ Ï3Ù áã Ïá3ÉÇóÇáÝ ÙÇõë ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý áõÅ»ñÇ Ñ»ï‘ 3Ûë Ï3å3Ïóáõ- Ã»3Ùμ Ð3Û 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÏáÝ·ñ¿ëÇ ËáñÑñ13ñ3Ý3Ï3Ý ËÙμ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Õ»Ï3í3ñÁ 3ë3ó. - ¦ ̧»- é»õë áñ»õ¿ Ëûë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝ 1ñ3 Ù3ëÇÝ ãÇ »Õ»É, ÝÙ3Ý μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝ 3Ûë å3ÑÇÝ ãÏ3Û, áã ¿É ÝÙ3Ý μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝ åÉ3Ý3õáñáõ3Í ¿: ́3Ûó »ë ã»Ù μ3ó3éáõÙ, áñ ù3Õ3ù3Ï3Ý 1⁄23ñ·3óáõÙ- Ý»ñÁ Ï3ñáÕ »Ý μ»ñ»É ÝÙ3Ý μ3Ý3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ§:
àêîÆÎ2ÜÜoðÀ àôÄ ÎÆð2èoòÆÜ §Ð2ðêÜ2ø2ð¦ oÎ2Ì òàôò2ð2ðÜoðÆ ̧3⁄4Ø
Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñÇ ë»÷3Ï3Ý3ï¿ñ èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3Ý
àëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñÝ ÚáõÉÇë 8-Ç »ñ»ÏáÛ»3Ý ÃáÛÉ ãïáõ»óÇÝ 1⁄2ÇÝáõáñ3Ï3Ý μÅÇßÏ ì3Ñ¿ 2õ»ï- »3ÝÇ ëå3ÝáõÃ»3Ý Ï3å3ÏóáõÃ»3Ùμ ¦Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñ§ é»ëïáñ3Ý3ÛÇÝ Ñ3Ù3ÉÇñÇ 3éç»õ Ï31⁄2- Ù3Ï»ñåáõ3Í μáÕáùÇ 3ÏóÇ3ÛÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ Ùûï»Ý3É »õ ÙáÙ3í3éáõÃÇõÝ Ï3ï3ñ»É:
òáõó3ñ3ñÝ»ñÝ 3ÛëåÇëáí Çñ»Ýó μáÕáùÝ »Ý 3ñï3Û3ÛïáõÙ Û3ÛïÝÇ ·áñÍ3ñ3ñ èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Û- ñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ ÁÝï3ÝÇùÇÝ å3ïÏ3ÝáÕ ¦Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñ§ é»ëïáñ3Ý3ÛÇÝ Ñ3Ù3ÉÇñáõÙ ÚáõÝÇëÇ 17-ÇÝ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó3Í 13Å3Ý Í»ÍÇ Ï3å3ÏóáõÃ»3Ùμ, áñÇ Ñ»ï»õ3Ýùáí »ñ»ù μÅÇßÏÝ»ñ Û3ÛïÝ- áõ»É ¿ÇÝ ÑÇõ3Ý13ÝáóáõÙ: Üñ3ÝóÇó Û3ïÏ3å¿ë Í3Ýñ íÝ3ëáõ3ÍùÝ»ñ ¿ñ ëï3ó»É ì3Ñ¿ 2õ»ï- »3ÝÁ, áñÁ ÙÇç31¿åÇó 12 ûñ Û»ïáÛ Ù3Ñ3ó3õ:
àëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñÁ ßñç3å3ï»É ¿ÇÝ é»ëïáñ3ÝÁ »õ 3ÏóÇ3ÛÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ 3ñ·»ÉáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ùûï»Ý3É, Ã¿»õ óáõó3ñ3ñÝ»ñÁ åÝ1áõÙ ¿ÇÝ, áñ ÁÝ13Ù¿ÝÁ áõ1⁄2áõÙ »Ý í3éáõ3Í ÙáÙ»ñÁ ß3ñ»É ß¿ÝùÇ å3ï»ñÇ ï3Ïa ÇÝãå¿ë Ý3Ëáñ1 3Ý·3Ù:
î»ëÝ»Éáí, áñ áëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñÁ áñ»õ¿ Ï»ñå ÃáÛÉ ã»Ý ï3ÉÇë Ùáõïù ·áñÍ»É ¦Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñÇ§ ï3ñ3Íù, 3ÏóÇ3ÛÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñÁ 1áõñë »Ï3Ý ÷áÕáóa μáÕáùÇ Ïáã»ñ ÑÝã»óÝ»Éáí:
àëïÇÏ3ÝáõÃ»3Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ñ3Ù3Ï3ñ·áÕ èáμ»ñ1 Ø»ÉùáÝ»3ÝÁ ¦21⁄23ïáõÃÇõÝ§ é31ÇáÏ3Û3ÝÇ Ñ3ñóÇÝ, Ã¿ ÇÝãá±õ áõÅ ÏÇñ3é»óÇÝ »õ ÃáÛÉ ãïáõ»óÇÝ 3ÏóÇ3ÛÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ3Ý·Çëï Çñ3Ï3Ý3óÝ»É Çñ»Ýó 3ÏóÇ3Ý, í3é»É ÙáÙ»ñÁ »õ Ñ»é3Ý3É, 3ñÓ3·3Ýù»ó. - ¦ê3 Ùá- Ù3í3éáõÃÇõÝ 3±, Ã¿± Û3Ýó3·áñÍáõÃÇõÝ 3: ÆÝãÇ± åÇïÇ ÃáÛÉ ï3Ýù: îáõÅáõÙ 3 3ÙμáÕç Ñ3Û Ñ3- ë3ñ3ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ, áñ ë»Ýó Ù3ñ1ÇÏ »Ý »Ï»É ëï»Õ§:
2ÏóÇ3ÛÇ ÙÇ ß3ñù Ù3ëÝ3ÏÇóÝ»ñ, 3Û1áõÑ3Ý1»ñÓ, åÝ1áõÙ ¿ÇÝ, áñ áëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñÁ μÇñï áõÅ »Ý ÏÇñ3é»É:
âÏ3ñáÕ3Ý3Éáí Çñ3Ï3Ý3óÝ»É ÙáÙ3í3éáõÃ»3Ý 3ÏóÇ3Ý, óáõó3ñ3ñÝ»ñÁ »ñÃáí, áëïÇ- Ï3ÝÝ»ñÇ áõÕ»ÏóáõÃ»3Ùμ, ß3ñÅáõ»óÇÝ 1¿åÇ èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ ïáõÝ: 2Ûëï»Õ Ýñ3Ýó ÝáÛÝå¿ë 1ÇÙ3õáñ»óÇÝ 3õ»ÉÇ ù3Ý Ñ3ñÇõñ áëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñ, áíù»ñ »ñÏáõ ß3ñùáí å3ï ¿ÇÝ Ï31⁄2- Ù»É èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ ï3Ý ßáõñçÁ:
2Ûëï»Õ 3ñ1¿Ý 3ÏïÇõÇëïÝ»ñÁ Ç Ýß3Ý μáÕáùÇ Ù¿çùáí ßñçáõ»óÇÝ 1¿åÇ Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ 3é3ÝÓÝ3ïáõÝÁ »õ ÑÇÝ· ñáå¿ ÉéáõÃ»3Ùμ Û3ñ·»óÇÝ ì3Ñ¿ 2õ»ï»3ÝÇ ÛÇß3ï3ÏÁ, 3å3 Ñ»é3- ó3Ý‘ Ëáëï3Ý3Éáí ß3ñáõÝ3Ï3Ï3Ý 3ÏóÇ3Ý»ñáí ÏñÏÇÝ í»ñ313éÝ3É ¦Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñ§:
ØÇÝã»õ ÙáÙ3í3éáõÃ»3Ý Ù»ÏÝ3ñÏÁ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ñ»ÉëÇÝÏ»3Ý 3ëáóÇ3óÇ3ÛÇ Çñ3õ3å3ßï- å3Ý »õ 1Çïáñ1 2ñÙ3Ý ì»1⁄2Çñ»3ÝÁ ¦21⁄23ïáõÃÇõÝ§ é31ÇáÏ3Û3ÝÇÝ å3ïÙ»ó Ù¿Ï 3ÛÉ ÙÇç31¿åÇ Ù3ëÇÝ, 3Ûë 3Ý·3Ù‘ 3ÝÓ3Ùμ èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÇ Ù3ëÝ3ÏóáõÃ»3Ùμ:
Àëï Çñ3õ3å3ßïå3ÝÇ, »ñμ ÇÝùÁ Ùûï»ó»É ¿ ¦Ð3ñëÝ3ù3ñ§ é»ëïáñ3ÝÇ ÙáõïùÇÝ‘ Éáõ- ë3ÝÏ3ñ»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ, Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÁ å3Ñ3Ýç»É ¿ Ñ»é3Ý3É, 3å3 Ùûï»ó»É ¿, Ñ3ÛÑáÛ»É »õ 3åï3Ï»Éáí ·»ïÝÇÝ ï3å3É»É Çñ»Ý:
¦ÜÏ3ñáõÙ ¿Ç, 3ë»ó‘ ¦ë»÷3Ï3Ý ï3ñ3Íù 3, 1áõñë 3ñÇ ëï»ÕÇó§‘ Ñ3ÛÑáÛ3ÝùÝ»ñáí, èáõ- μ¿ÝÁ Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3Ý, áõ Ùûï»ó3õ, ÙÇ3Ý·3ÙÇó 3ëÇ‘ ¦ë»÷3Ï3Ý ï3ñ3Íù 3, 1áõñë »Ù ·3ÉÇë§, Ùûï»ó3õ áõ ÙÇ3Ý·3ÙÇó Ñ3ñáõ3Í»ó: 3⁄4Ýï»Õ Ý»ñÏ3Û ¿ÇÝ ¿ë áëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñÁ‘ ¿ë 3ÙμáÕç, Ø»ÉùáÝ- »3Ý èáμ»ñ1Á... 2ÝÓ3Ùμ Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÁ Ë÷»ó, Ñ»Ýó 3Ûëï»Õ ¿ñ, Ë÷»ó, ÁÝÏ3õ ·»ïÝÇÝ§, - å3ïÙ»ó ì»1⁄2Çñ»3ÝÁ‘ ÁÝ1·Í»Éáí, áñ áëïÇÏ3ÝÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý ÙÇç3Ùï»É ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó3ÍÇÝ:
èáõμ¿Ý Ð3Ûñ3å»ï»3ÝÁ oñÏáõß3μÃÇ ûñÁ 1⁄23Ý·3Ñ3ñ»É ¿ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ Ñ»ÉëÇÝÏ»3Ý 3ëáó- Ç3óÇ3ÛÇ Çñ3õ3å3ßïå3Ý »õ 1Çïáñ1 2ñÙ3Ý ì»1⁄2Çñ»3ÝÇÝ »õ Ý»ñáÕáõÃÇõÝ ¿ ËÝ1ñ»É Ýñ3Ý Ñ3ñáõ3Í»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ:
ÆÜüàðØ2òÆ2ÚÆ 21⁄42îàôÂo2Ü ÎoÜîðàÜÀ §êoô òàôò2Î¦ 3⁄4 Ðð2ä2ð2ÎoÈ
ÆÝýáñÙ3óÇ3ÛÇ 31⁄23ïáõÃ»3Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝÇ ïÝûñ¿Ý Þáõß3Ý ̧áÛ1á»3Ý
ÆÝýáñÙ3óÇ3ÛÇ 31⁄23ïáõÃ»3Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝÝ 3Ù÷á÷»É ¿ 3Ûë ï3ñáõ3Û »ñÏñáñ1 »é3Ùë»3ÏÝ áõ Ý»ñÏ3Û3óñ»É ¦ë»õ óáõó3Ï§, áñï»Õ Ý»ñ3éáõ3Í 3ÝÓÇÝù Ï3Ù Ýñ3Ýó ·ÉË3õáñ3Í Ï31⁄2Ù3Ï»ñ- åáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ë3Ëï»É »Ý Ù3ñ1Ï3Ýó ï»Õ»Ï3ïáõáõÃÇõÝ ëï3Ý3Éáõ Çñ3õáõÝùÁ:
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Ð3Ýñ3å»ï3Ï3Ý Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃ»3Ý Ý»ñÏ3Û3óáõóÇã Î3ñ¿Ý 2õ3·»3ÝÝ 3Ûë Ù»Õ31ñ3ÝùÝ»ñÁ áñ3Ï»ó 3ÝÑÇÙÝ:
¦Ø»ñ Ù3ÙáõÉÇ Í3é3ÛáõÃÇõÝÁ ÙÇßï »Õ»É ¿ Ñ3ë3Ý»ÉÇ, »Ã¿ 3Û1ù3ÝÇó Û»ïáÛ Ù3ñ1ÇÏ ÷áñ- ÓáõÙ »Ý ·Ý3Ñ3ï3Ï3ÝÝ»ñ ï3É, ÏáåÇï 3ë3Í‘ Çñ»Ýó Ù»ÕùÁ Çñ»Ýó íÇ1⁄2Á§, - Ýß»ó 2õ3·»3ÝÁ:
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ÆÝýáñÙ3óÇ3ÛÇ 31⁄23ïáõÃ»3Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝÇ ¦ë»õ óáõó3ÏáõÙ§ ÁÝ1·ñÏáõ3Í »Ý Ý3»õ ¦ ́3ñ·3- õ3× Ð3Û3ëï3Ý§ Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ, Ð3Û 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÏáÝ·ñ¿ëÝ áõ Ð3Û3ëï3ÝÇ 1»ÙáÏñ3ï3Ï3Ý Ïáõë3ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ, áñáÝù, Áëï ̧áÛ1á»3ÝÇ, ã»Ý ïñ3Ù31ñ»É ï»Õ»Ï3ïáõáõÃÇõÝ Ý3ËÁÝïñ3Ï3Ý ù3ñá1⁄2ãáõÃ»3Ý íñ3Û Í3Ëëáõ3Í ·áõÙ3ñÝ»ñÇ í»ñ3μ»ñ»3É:
§ÜoðÎ2ÚàôØê Ðoèàôêî2oÂoðàôØ 2ôoÈÆ ØoÌ ¶ð2øÜÜàô- ÂÆôÜ Î2Ú, ø2Ü ÊàðÐð ̧2ÚÆÜ î2ðÆÜoðÆÜ¦.- 2ðoôÞ2î 2ô2¶o2Ü
Øß3ÏáÛÃÇ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý ýáÝ1Ç Ý3Ë3·3Ñ 2ñ»õß3ï 2õ3·»3Ý
îáõ¿ù ÇÝÓ Ð3Û3ëï3Ý»3Ý Ñ»éáõëï3ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ÙÇ ù3ÝÇ 3Ùëáí Õ»Ï3í3ñ»Éáõ ÑÝ3ñ3õáñáõÃÇõÝ »õ Ñ3Û ÅáÕáíáõñ1Á 3-4 3ÙÇë Û»ïáÛ ÏÁ ·Ý3Û í»ñÁÝÃ3óÇ ×3Ý3å3ñÑáí:
2Ûë Ù3ëÇÝ Éñ3·ñáÕÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï Ñ3Ý1ÇåÙ3Ý Å3Ù3Ý3Ï 3ë3ó 3Ï31»ÙÇÏáë, Ùß3ÏáÛÃÇ Ñ3Û- Ï3Ï3Ý ýáÝ1Ç Ý3Ë3·3Ñ 2ñ»õß3ï 2õ3·»3ÝÁ:
Àëï Ýñ3‘ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý μáÉáñ Ñ»éáõëï3ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Õ»Ï3í3ñõáõÙ »Ý ÙÇ Ï»ÝïñáÝÇó:
¦Ð»éáõëï3ï»ë3ÛÇÝ Ùß3ÏáÛÃÇ Ù¿ç 31⁄2ÝáõáõÃÇõÝ »õ 3ñ13ñáõÃÇõÝ ãÏ3Û, 3ÛÝ 3éáÕç áõÅ»- ñÁ, áíù»ñ Çñûù 3ñÅ3ÝÇ »Ý »Ã»ñÇó Ëûë»Éáõ, ·ïÝõáõÙ »Ý ûï3ñáõ3Í íÇ×3ÏáõÙ: oë ß3ï ïËñáõÙ »Ù, áñ Ñ»éáõëï3ï»ëáõÃÇõÝÁ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý Ùß3ÏáõÃ3ÛÇÝ Ï»3ÝùÁ 3ßËáõÅ3óÝ»Éáõ, Ùï3- õáñ3Ï3ÝÝ»ñÇÝ »Ã»ñ ï3Éáõ, Ñ3Ûáñ1ÇÝ»ñÇ »õ Ñ3ÛáõÑÇÝ»ñÇ Ý3ËÁÝïñ»ÉÇ Ï»ñå3ñÁ Ý3Ë3å3ï- ñ3ëï»Éáõ áõÕÕáõÃ»3Ùμ áãÇÝã ãÇ 3ÝáõÙ: oÃ»ñÁ Éóáõ3Í ¿ 3ÝÑ3ëÏ3Ý3ÉÇ, ÍÇÍ3Õ3ß3ñÅ Ï»ñ- å3ñÝ»ñáí, áñÁ Ýáñ ë»ñÝ1Ç Ñ3Ù3ñ 13ñÓ»É ¿ ã3ñÇù§,- Ýß»ó 2ñ»õß3ï 2õ3·»3ÝÁ:
Ü3 3ë3ó, áñ Ý»ñÏ3ÛáõÙë Ñ3Û3ëï3Ý»3Ý Ñ»éáõëï3»Ã»ñáõÙ 3õ»ÉÇ Ù»Í ·ñ3ùÝÝáõÃÇõÝ Ï3Û, ù3Ý ËáñÑñ13ÛÇÝ ï3ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ. ¦Î3Û ·ñ3ùÝÝáõÃÇõÝ É3õÇ, μ3ñáÛ3Ï3ÝÇ, 31⁄2·3ÛÇÝÇ: Ø»Í ÷áÕ»ñ Í3ËëáÕÝ»ñÁ Ñ»éáõëï3ï»ëáõÃÇõÝáõÙ »ñ»õáõÙ »Ý μ3ñ»·áñÍÝ»ñ, Ù»Í Ù3ñ1ÇÏ, Ýñ3Ýó Û»ï»õÇó ·ÝáõÙ »Ý 3ÛÝ ÁÝïñáÕÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ûñ»ñÇó ÙÇ ûñ Ñ»ñÃ3Ï3Ý 3Ý·3Ù Ë3μáõ»Éáõ »Ý »õ 3ÛÝ 21⁄2·3ÛÇÝ ÅáÕáíÝ »Ý ÁÝïñ»Éáõ, áñÁ áãÇÝã ãÇ Ï3ñáÕ 3Ý»É í3ï íÇ×3ÏÇó Ñ3Û ÅáÕáíñ1ÇÝ ÷ñÏ»Éáõ Ñ3Ù3ñ: oÃ»ñ Ñ»é3ñÓ3Ï¿ù 3Ûë ÇÙ Ëûëù»ñÁ »õ ï»ë¿ù ÇÝã 3ñÓ3·3ÝùÝ»ñ ÏÁ ÉÇÝ»Ý: ́3Ûó 13 ãÇ ÉÇÝ»Éáõ, ù3ÝÇ áñ 3õ»ÉÇ Ù»Í ·ñ3ùÝÝáõÃÇõÝ, ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ 3Ûëûñ ¿, »ñμ»ù ãÇ »Õ»É§:
2ñ»õß3ï 2õ3·»3ÝÁ ãÇ íëï3ÑáõÙ Ý3»õ Ð3Ýñ3ÛÇÝ ËáñÑñ1Ç ·áñÍáõÝ¿áõÃ»3ÝÁ. ¦2ÛÝ Ó»- õ3Ï3Ý μÝáÛÃ ¿ ÏñáõÙ: oõñáå3Ï3Ý, Ñ3Ù3ßË3ñÑ3ÛÇÝ Ùá1»ÉÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý 3ñ13ñ3óÝáõÙ Ñ3ÛÏ3Ï3Ý Ñ»éáõëï3»Ã»ñÇ ·áñÍáõÝ¿áõÃÇõÝÁ: Ø»1⁄2 31⁄23ï ÃáÕ¿ù, »õ Ñ3Û ÅáÕáíñ1Ç ï3Õ3Ý1Á ÏÁ ßáÕ3ñÓ3- ÏÇ 3ßË3ñÑáí Ù¿Ï§:
Police Clash with Protesters at Harsnakar Restaurant Ruben Hayrapetian Questioned in the Deadly Assault on
Protesters clash with riot police near the Harsnakar restaurant in Yerevan
YEREVAN — An Armenian human rights campaigner claimed to have been assaulted by Ruben Hayrapetian late on Sunday as hundreds of activists clashed with riot police in continuing protests against deadly violence at a restaurant owned by the government-linked businessman.
Armen Vezirian, a member of the Armenian Helsinki Association, was among the protesters that gathered outside the Harsnakar restaurant compound in Yerevan for another candlelight vigil for Vahe Avetian, a military doctor who was beaten to death there late last month.
Vezirian said he was confronted by Hayrapetian after approaching the two-story restaurant. “I was taking pictures when he said that it’s private property, swore at me and told me to get out,” he told journalists. “Then he punched me.”
Hayrapetian, who has been facing allegations of complicity in Avetian’s death, did not publicly comment on the allegations.
According to Mikael Danielian, chairman of the Armenian Helsinki Association, the embattled tycoon telephoned Vezirian and apologized for his behavior. “Ruben Hayrapetian said that his ac- tions resulted from his nervous condition,” Danielian told RFE/RL’s Armenian service (Azatutyun.am).
Vezirian was questioned by the Yerevan police in connection with the incident on Monday. A police statement said that the activist said that he will not lodge a formal complaint and “has no demands from Ruben Hayrapetian.” The police will therefore not launch criminal proceedings against Hayrapetian, it said.
Hayrapetian, who also heads the Armenian Football Federation has been implicated in politi- cally motivated violence against opposition members in the past and is also notorious for insulting journalists and other critics. Civic activists, opposition figures and some media outlets hold him re- sponsible for the June 17 incident at Harsnakar. They say it was the result of impunity enjoyed by government-backed “oligarchs” like Hayrapetian and their notoriously violent bodyguards.
Street protests against the tycoon continued even after he resigned from Armenia’s parliament on July 3, admitting “moral” responsibility for Avetian’s death and asking the victim’s family for forgiveness. The protesters want him to also resign as AFF chief and be declared a suspect in the ongoing criminal investigation into the fatal beating.
Several hundred people again gathered near Harsnakar on Sunday evening. Riot police pre- vented them from entering the compound located in Yerevan’s northern Avan suburb and putting candles by the restaurant building.
The crowd responded by blocking an adjacent street. The police used force to push it to the sidewalks and reopen the street to traffic, meeting with brief resistance in the process.
Chanting “Avan, join us!” the protesters then marched to Hayrapetian’s nearby sprawling man- sion surrounded by high walls and guarded by riot police. Turning their back on the house, they ob- served a five-minute silence in memory of Avetian.
The Armenian police have interrogated on Tuesday Ruben Hayrapetian but see no legal grounds yet to prosecute him in connection with last month’s deadly assault at the Yerevan restau- rant owned by him, a senior police investigator said on Tuesday.
Arsen Ayvazian, a high-ranking official from the police Inspectorate General of Criminal In- vestigations, said Hayrapetian was formally questioned on Friday as a potential witness in the brutal beating of three military doctors who visited the Harsnakar restaurant on June 17.
The police have faced growing calls from opposition members, civic activists and some media to prosecute Hayrapetian as well. They have accused the influential tycoon, who has close ties to the Armenian government, of complicity in Avetian’s death.
There have been media allegations that Hayrapetian might have ordered the beatings by phone. Ayvazian said the police will look into this theory by listening to his and his arrested employees’ phone conversations recorded by wireless operators. A Yerevan court has already ordered those companies to make the audio available to the investigators, he said.
Ayvazian also denied media reports that the main suspect in the case, who is believed to have in- flicted the fatal injuries on Avetian, is a personal bodyguard of Hayrapetian. He said all jailed sus- pects officially worked at the restaurant. Some of them have only escorted Hayrapetian “on some special occasions” in the past, he claimed.
Hollande Vows New Armenian Genocide Bill Refuting his FM’s Controversial Remarks
PARIS — French President Francois Hollande confirmed Saturday plans for a new law crimi- nalising denial of the Armenian genocide with representatives of the Armenian community, the Elysee Palace said, effectively refuting a statement to the contrary made by his foreign minister.
The minister, Laurent Fabius, said on Thursday that a similar law that was struck down by France’s constitutional court in February is unlikely to be revived. Fabius spoke after talks in Paris with his visiting Turkish counterpart Ahmet Davutoglu, which underlined a thaw in French-Turkish relations that followed Hollande’s victory in recent presidential elections.
French-Armenian leaders were quick to express serious concern at Fabius’s remarks. Hollande moved to allay those concerns in a phone conversation with a top representative of the Coordinating Council of Armenian Organisations of France (CCAF), an umbrella structure representing the 500,000-strong Armenian community.
“Francois Hollande has again expressed his willingness to propose a bill designed to curb the denial of the Armenian genocide, as he had said during his campaign and even before,” the CCAF said in a statement.
The presidential Elysee Palace confirmed the telephone conversation and told AFP on Satur- day: “The president expressed his commitments during the campaign. He will keep them.” “There is no change, although we must find a path, a road that allows for a text that is consistent with the constitution,” it said.
Meanwhile, official Ankara played down the significance of Hollande’s statements. “We pay more attention to the statement of French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius,” an unnamed Turkish Foreign Ministry official told “Hurriyet Daily News” on Sunday.
“I believe that the new team in power in Paris will have the wisdom not to reopen this file,” Foreign Minister Davutoglu said for his part in an interview with the French daily “Liberation” pub- lished on Monday.
During a meeting in Paris foreign ministers of the two countries (Ahmet Davutoglu of Turkey and Laurent Fabius of France) agreed to improve the strained relations between the two countries over the Armenian genocide bill.
Following the meeting with his French counterpart, Turkish foreign minister said: “as a result of the few difficulties which we experienced in the past, Turkey took a series of measures against France, but I would like to announce that these measures have been completely removed.”
French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said the law, which was rejected by France's highest court in February as contrary to free speech, was unlikely to be resurrected.
Mediators Again Cross Karabakh Frontline STEPANAKERT -- International mediators crossed into Nagorno-Karabakh through the heavily fortified Ar- menian-Azerbaijani “line of contact” on Wednesday in a fresh round of regional shuttle diplomacy aimed at kick-
starting the stalled peace process. The U.S., Russian and French diplomats co-heading the OSCE Minsk Group walked through a
section of the frontline east of Karabakh the day after meeting with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev in Baku. It was temporarily cleared of land mines on the occasion.
The diplomats held talks with Karabakh’s leadership in Stepanakert later on Wednesday. They were due to proceed to Yerevan on Thursday.
Few details of the talks were made public. Igor Popov, the Russian co-chair, said the mediating troika discussed in Baku and Stepanakert recent ceasefire violations in the conflict zone that have fuelled more concerns about a renewed Armenian-Azerbaijani war. He also indicated that the con- flicting parties continue to disagree on a mechanism for joint investigations of such skirmishes which is proposed by the mediators.
The press office of Karabakh President Bako Sahakian said he urged the Minsk Group co- chairs to continue trying to “bring Azerbaijan onto a constructive path.” Sahakian also expressed hope that they will restore the “full-fledged format” of peace talks, a clear reference to the Kara- bakh Armenians’ direct involvement in them.
Popov said that this could happen at later stages of the negotiating process. “I can presume that when substantive work on the peace accord starts then the format of negotiators may be expanded,” he told reporters after the meeting with Sahakian.
It was not clear if Popov and his American and French colleagues presented new proposals on help- ing the parties overcome their differences on the Basic Principles of the Karabakh conflict’s resolu- tion advanced by the three mediating powers.
High Court Judge Sees No Judicial Independence In Armenia
YEREVAN -- Armenia still has no independent judiciary despite numerous legislative changes enacted by its successive governments over the past two decades, a member of the country’s Consti- tutional Court said on Thursday.
“There is a lack of justice in Armenia. The courts, including the Constitutional Court, are not independent,” Felix Tokhian told a news conference held on the 17th anniversary of referendum that approved the existing Armenian constitution.
In unusually blunt remarks, Tokhian said the problem not only creates a fertile ground for hu- man rights abuses but also hampers economic development. “The absence of an independent judicial system greatly affects the pace of economic growth in the country,” he said, arguing that local and foreign investors cannot count on Armenian courts in protecting their businesses.
The courts have long been notorious for rarely handing down rulings opposed by the government and law- enforcement bodies. Only about 2 percent of individuals charged with various crimes were acquitted by them last year.
Tokhian complained that Armenian judges challenging the authorities run the risk of arbitrary dismissal. “If someone tells you something bad, you immediately go to court,” he said. “But if a judge is fired he can’t come out and say why. A judge can’t appeal [his sacking.] And you wonder why they are not independent.”
A Yerevan district court judge, Samvel Mnatsakanian, made a similar point last year after he was controversially dismissed by President Serzh Sarkisian upon the recommendation of the Justice Council, a state body overseeing the judiciary. In a July 2011 interview with RFE/RL’s Armenian service (Azatutyun.am), Mnatsakanian said many of his colleagues are primarily concerned with not upsetting high-level state authorities, rather than enforcing laws.
The judicial system has undergone frequent and substantial structural changes since the 1995 constitutional referendum. Some of the Western-backed constitutional amendments enacted by the Armenian authorities in 2005 were supposed to make judges less susceptible to government pres- sure.
Tokhian said the Armenian constitution should be amended again in a way that would ensure a proper “balance” among all branches of government. “There is a balance now but it is tilted in one direction: the political majority,” he said. The judge suggested that the country’s main political forces represented in the new National Assembly could reach consensus on fresh constitutional re- form.
President Sarkisian has repeatedly pledged to boost judicial independence since taking office in 2008. He approved a five-year government plan of judicial reforms last week.
Iran, Armenia Sign Agreement to Boost Security Cooperation
YEREVAN -- Iran and Armenia have signed a security agreement to expand cooperation on measures against organ- ized crimes and the fight against drug smuggling as well as security and border issues.
The agreement was signed by Iran's Deputy Interior Minister Ali Abdollahi and Armenian Police Chief Lieutenant- General Vladimir Gasparyan on Tuesday.
In the ceremony which was also attended by Iran’s Interior Minister Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar, the Iranian minister pointed to the growing relations between Iran and Armenia, saying a new chapter has opened in the security cooperation between the two countries.
Mohammad-Najjar referred to Iran's readiness to share its experiences with Armenia in police training and criminal extradition as well as the fight against drug-trafficking and organized crimes, noting that the agreement between the two countries set a good framework for mutual cooperation.
The Armenian official, for his part, described the agreement as a turning point in Tehran-Yerevan relations and said Armenia was keen to use Iran's security experience.
Mohammad-Najjar also met with Armenian Deputy Prime Minister Armen Gevorgyan, during which he described the bilateral relations as excellent and said Tehran and Yerevan could further boost their ties, given the two countries’ high capacities.
Gevorgyan underlined his country’s relations with Iran and said Armenia is ready to expand economic cooperation with the Islamic Republic, adding that the construction of a power plant on Aras River and the Iran-Armenia railway are on the agenda of the two neighbors.
Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar, heading a high ranking delegation, arrived in Yerevan on Monday to meet and discuss is- sues of mutual interest with Armenian senior officials.
He held separate meetings with Armenian President Serzh Sargsyana and Parliament Speaker Hovik Abrahamian on Monday.
Iran and Armenia have taken major strides towards promoting their mutual relations over the recent years, particu- larly in the energy sector.
Economic Problems Major Cause of Suicides in Armenia - Deutche Welle
The existing economic problems in Armenia have contributed to an increased suicide rate, ac- cording to Deutsche Welle.
In a recent report covering the suicide statistics in Armenia, the German publication says that only over the recent years, 47 cases were registered across the country.
Referring to an interview with Gevorg Poghosyan, the president of the Armenian Sociological Association, the publication says that the cases involving the suicide of father and son and a 21- year-old pregnant woman were caused by socio-economic factors.
Poghosyan was quoted saying that the number of suicides on the global scale remains stable on annual bases unless there are changes in the social environment.
Deutche Welle says that the economic factor pushing people to suicides in Armenia is no sur- prise given that 40% of the country’s population is unemployed.
The author of the report notes that the rate is the highest on the CIS territory, with 30% of people being below the poverty line.
Deutche Welle further quotes Kamo Vardanyan, a psychologist and a suicide expert, as saying that the numbers recorded in Armenian are not critical, with the global suicide rate being up to 1 million cases annually. Vardanyan said that 15 out of 100,000 people commit suicide in Armenia, the average rate not exceeding 20 cases per 100,000 people. According to him that number reaches 40 cases in several European states.
But the statistics is very inconsolable, says the German publication, adding that 650 suicide at- tempts were recorded in the country last year, claiming 195 lives.
OSCE Head: Political Will of Sides the Only Way to Negotiate Peaceful Solu-
tion to Karabakh Conflict
YEREVAN --OSCE Secretary General Lamberto Zannier comments on reforms and develop- ments of the OSCE as well as problems in the OSCE area in an interview with Armenian News- NEWS.am.
Lately, there has been a lot of discussion about the reforms and the development of the OSCE. What work do you plan to implement in the nearest future?
The OSCE is a unique organization – it is the largest regional security organization bringing together 56 participating States with sometimes opposite political views, and our goal is to serve as a platform where they can meet, reconcile their differences and take consensus decisions. However, in order for such a platform to be effective, it needs to be as relevant as possible for its participants. This is why when I took up the position of the OSCE Secretary General a year ago, I put raising the effectiveness of the Organization high on the agenda.
Some progress has already been achieved. In order to effectively counter such transnational threats as terrorism, organized crime, drug trafficking we’ve created a special department within the OSCE which deals especially with addressing such threats. We’ve been quite active in raising the profile of the organization – both in the media, and in relations with its international partners and with the research community. Last December in Vilnius foreign ministers of all OSCE participating States took an important decision on elements of the conflict cycle in order to strengthen the OSCE’s capabilities in this area.
Together with breakthroughs, a number of serious problems persist in the OSCE region. These include closed borders between participating States of the Organization. How would you assess the continued blockade of Armenia from the side of Turkey and linking the issue of the normalization of relations with the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict settlement, and, in parallel, to the refusal of the official Ankara to ratify the Armenian-Turkish protocols?
The ratification of the Armenia-Turkey protocols as such remains a matter for the bilateral relations between the two countries. However, the matter was raised in the OSCE Permanent Council on several occasions by both countries and other participating States. We would welcome any developments which would strengthen peace and stability in the region.
Despite the appeals from the international community, in the first place from the OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairs, Azerbaijan refuses to withdraw snipers from the Line of Contact, carries out provocations and steps up the arms race. Are there mechanisms to force to a refusal from attempts to resolve the problem by use of force, and create a mechanism of investigating incidents on the line of contact?
No external player – be it OSCE or another body – can impose a solution on the sides of the conflict or resolve it. Political will of the sides is the only way to negotiate a peaceful solution. We will continue our efforts to get the sides to withdraw snipers from the line of contact, and to imple- ment their commitment on the investigation of incidents on the line of contact which the Presidents undertook in Sochi last year.
Are there possibilities for stepping up the work with “non-recognized states” in the OSCE region?
It would be misleading to generalize the OSCE’s interaction with entities which are not inter- nationally recognized as states, as each format and mechanism for dealing with such cases is indi- vidually conceived and internationally agreed.
Are you expecting new participating States to the Organization? Specifically, what is the situation with Mongolia?
Mongolia applied to become an OSCE participating State in October last year, and in Decem- ber 2011 all 56 participating States in Vilnius tasked the Irish Chairmanship to take forward the ap- plication. As part of this effort, the Irish Presidency organized a familiarization trip to Mongolia this June, in which I took part. The final decision on Mongolia’s application must be taken by a consensus decision of all 56 participating States.
Can the OSCE take any measures in order to prevent further exacerbation of the conflict in Syria?
Syria is neither a participating State of the OSCE nor a Partner for Co-operation. The situation in Syria is being dealt with in other forums, most notably the UN Security Council. Naturally, situation around Syria and differences in po- sitions of some States can have an impact on their interaction within the OSCE. We generally support resolution of conflicts by peaceful means. However, the conflict in Syria lies outside of the remit of the OSCE work and therefore the OSCE is not in a position to take action in any way.
“Gendering the Armenian Genocide” Panel at Istanbul Conference
“Gendering the Armenian Genocide” panelists: Arlene Avakian, Doris Melkonian, Anna Aleksanyan, Hourig Attarian, and Ayse Gül Altinay
ISTANBUL -- The “Gendered Memories of War and Political Violence” International Conference in Istanbul, Turkey, featured a panel devoted to the Armenian Genocide, titled “Gendering the Armenian Genocide.” The conference was organized by Prof. Ayse Gül Altinay of Sabanci University and Prof. Andrea Petö of Central European University as a joint academic initiative between their two universities.
Over 40 academics from around the world (Australia, Israel, Poland, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Finland, Netherlands, Greece, Canada, United States, and Armenia) gathered in Istanbul to present their latest research findings on women’s memories of war and political violence. Papers exam- ined genocides and political violence in Cambodia, Vietnam, Congo, Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Serbia, Israel-Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Turkey.
Keynote speaker, Prof. Cynthia Enloe of Clark University, set the tone for the conference, posing the question, “Which wartime women are re- membered in post-wartime and which forgotten?” Enloe underscored the importance of paying tribute to women’s memories of political conflict, rec- ognizing that stories remain untold as women live their lives in post-conflict silence. As Doris Melkonian of the University of California, Los Angeles said during her presentation, quoting Professor Kamala Visweswaran, “If we do not know how to hear silence, we will be unable to understand what is being said.”
The conference papers were grouped into nine panels which included: “Gendered Memories of War in Literature and the Arts”; “Women’s Nar- ratives of War and Soldiering”; “Sexual Violence: Silence, Narration, Resistance”; “Gender, Sexual Violence and International Law”; “Gendering the Ar- menian Genocide”; and “Reflecting on Feminist Memory Work.”
The panel devoted to the Armenian Genocide consisted of (in order of presentation): Doris Melkonian (United States), Anna Aleksanyan (Arme- nia), Hourig Attarian (Canada), and Ayse Gül Altinay (Turkey), with Arlene Avakian (United States) serving as discussant.
Doris Melkonian (doctoral student at UCLA) presented a paper co-authored with her sister, Arda Melkonian (doctoral student at UCLA) titled “Armenian Women and Men Narrating Sexual Violence During the Armenian Genocide.” Drawing upon the UCLA Collection of Armenian Genocide Survi- vor Memoirs, Melkonian analyzed gender differences in survivors’ use of language when retelling stories of rape and sexual violence. Melkonian’s close reading of the narratives underscores the importance of not only analyzing language but also paying close attention to the silences. While rape was a common occurrence during the Armenian Genocide, very little scholarly research has been conducted on this topic. Through their research, the Melkonians strive to fill this void.
Anna Aleksanyan (researcher at the Armenian Genocide Museum Institute in Yerevan) presented the complex post-Genocide situation of Arme- nian women who had converted to Islam. Her paper, “The Gender Issue: The Dilemma of Re-Armenianization of Armenian Women after the Genocide” dealt with the difficult task of bringing Islamized Armenian women back into the Armenian community and to their roots. Aleksanyan highlighted the role of Danish missionary, Karen Jeppe, who worked relentlessly towards this end in Aleppo, Syria. Despite efforts to rescue Islamized Armenian women, many chose to not return to the Armenian community and to remain with their Arab/Kurd/Turk husbands due to the intense shame they felt.
Hourig Attarian (post-doctoral fellow at Concordia University) shared her research on Armenian women who led double lives after the Geno- cide. In her paper, “Storying Narratives of Silences and Secrets in the Aftermath of Genocide,” Attarian incorporates material from the AGBU central archives in Aleppo. Marginal notes written after each ledger entry provide insight into these women’s lives. Attarian wove into her presentation mov- ing accounts of her own family members, describing the joy, and later, anguish they experienced as they found, and then lost touch of an aunt.
Ayse Gül Altinay (professor at Sabanci University) discussed Armenian Islamized women in Turkey in her presentation, “Gendered Silencing of Islamized Armenians.” Altinay estimates that there were as many as two hundred thousand Armenian women who had been Islamized after the Geno- cide. Unfortunately, there is scant research on this subject, partly because Islamized Armenian women were considered “lost” and therefore, no
longer Armenian. The grandchildren of Islamized Armenians are now surfacing in Turkish society, and thus, challenging notions of ethnic and cultural identity for both Turkish and Armenian nationalists.
Arlene Avakian (retired professor), discussant for this panel, highlighted the unifying themes in each of the papers, seamlessly connecting the papers to each other.
NAASR Founding Chairman Manoog S. Young Passes Away at Age 94
Manoog Soghomon Young, the Founding Chairman of the National Association for Arme- nian Studies and Research (NAASR) and its chairman until 2001, passed away on Tuesday, July 3, 2012, at the age of 94. He is survived by his wife of 49 years Barbara (Johnson) Young, chil- dren Armen Young of Littleton, MA, and Adrina Young Gobbi of North Billerica, MA, and grand- children Jake and Mariah Gobbi and Christopher and Lauren Young.
"The Father of the Armenian Studies Movement" in America
Prof. Gerard J. Libaridian has aptly called Manoog Young "the father of the Armenian Stud- ies movement," and this begins to give a sense of Young's role in ushering into existence the field of Armenian Studies in America and his half century working to advance it.
Early Life and Education
Manoog S. Young was born in Boston, MA, in 1917 to Soghomon and Aghavni Malyemezian Young. Both parents were born in Kharpert, in the Ottoman Empire and emigrated to the U.S. prior to the 1915 Armenian Genocide. Young was raised in Boston's South End. He received a B.S. in Mathematics and Physics from Northeastern University and a M.A. in History and Inter- national Relations from Clark University, where he wrote a thesis entitled "Russia and the Arme- nians, 1700-1923: Growth of Russian Interest in Armenia, its Character and its Relation to the Straits Question." He also took courses at MIT, Boston University, and the London School of Economics. During World War II, Young served in the 8th and 9th Air Forces in Europe.
Young taught Physics and Applied Mechanics at the University of Massachusetts; taught In- ternational Relations at Northeastern University and History and Government at Brookline High School. In the early 1950s he worked as an editorial assistant at the Armenian Mirror-Spectator newspaper. He served as Business Manager and Bursar at the Franklin Institute in Boston for more 27 years.
Affiliations and Honors
Young's many affiliations include the following: Founding Member, Chairman of the Board of Directors, and Honorary Life Member, NAASR; Member, Board of Trustees, Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation; Honorary Board Member, Cambridge-Yerevan Sister City Association; Chairman, AGBU Elementary School Board, Watertown, MA; Chairman, American
Veterans Committee Council of Massachusetts; Founding Chairman, London School of Econom- ics Foundation of America; Co-Chairman, United Armenian Observance Committee of Greater Boston for the 55th and 60th Anniversaries of the Armenian Genocide; Member, Armenian Stu- dents' Association of America; Member, Society for Armenian Studies.
Among the many honors bestowed upon Young are the St. Sahag and St. Mesrob Medal from His Holiness, Catholicos Vazken I, for outstanding service to the Armenian Community and Leadership in Promoting Armenian Studies (1986), and the Arthur H. Dadian Armenian Heritage Award given by the Armenian Students' Association in "recognition of his outstanding contribu- tion to the preservation of the rich Armenian heritage."
Visiting hours are on Monday, July 9, from 6:00 to 9:00 p.m. at Giragosian Funeral Home, 576 Mt. Auburn St., Watertown, MA, and funeral services will be Tuesday, July 10, at 11:00 a.m. at St. James Armenian Church, Watertown, MA.
Expressions of sympathy may be made in his memory to St. James Armenian Church or NAASR.
Creation of Ancient Armenian Calendar (It happened in 2492BC on 11th of August).
When talking about any event it is necessary not only to justify the place where it happened, but also the time the event took place. The science that deals with question concerning time and its interpretation is called calendarol- ogy.
At the dawn of history people used the day and the night as a measure of time. Working day and non- working night were actually the first calendar in the history of the mankind. While developing, human kind soon began to measure time by the moon cycles. It is quite possible that it was also used in ancient Armenia, as it is said by Ananiah Shirakatsi. Besides, on lots of Armenian sculptures and reliefs with the sun we can also see the moon, which, possibly, appeared there from the ancient pagan traditions and beliefs.
Anyway, later men began to connect moon years with seasons of year, counting spring as a start, and count- ing moon cycles in order, without titles. Soon the months got their own titles and, as a result, so called moon calendar was created. In the middle ages it was used by many nations. Today moon calendars are used in some Middle East countries. It is interesting that the year based on 12 moon months is shorter than the right sun calendar on about 11 days: moon year lasts 354 days, 8 hours and 34 seconds, while sun year length is 365 days, 5 hours, 498 minutes and 46 seconds.
One of the most important reforms in the calendar history is connected with the name of Julius Caesar. By his order the Egyptian calendarologist Cosigenes created the static sun calendar, known as Julian in 46BC. Its length was taken 365 days and a quarter of a day. As it was inconvenient to take into consideration that quarter every year, each four years it was counted as one additional day, which was added to February. Since that time, a year in which February has 29 days is called leap year, and the other three years â€“ ordinary. Besides, according to the Julian cal- endar, the New Year is celebrated on the 1st of January.
Ancient Armenian Calendar
Though the origins of the Armenian calendar and calendarology are almost unknown, there is some written and archeological evidence that may help to answer a few questions. For example, in one of Movses Khorenatsi's written peaces it is said that king Arthashes (189-160BC) paid special attention on developing of some sciences, in- cluding calendarology.
According to the ancient legend we can consider that the beginning of the Armenian calendar is connected with the victory of Hayk Patriarch over the Babylonian king Bel. In Middle Ages Ghevond Alishan has counted that it happened in 2492BC on 11th of August. It is thought, that it is exactly the date when the not only Armenian chro- nology, but also the Armenain nation was formed and was named after Hayk â€” Hayq or Haykazunq.
Though some historians are suspicious about Alishan's accounts, traditionally the year 2492 is concidered to be the beginning of the Armenian calendar. On August 11 2007 the 4500 Year was celebrated in Armenia.
The ancient pagan calendar went out of usage in Armenia after the adoption of Christianity as an official re- ligion in the IV century. During next centuries it gradually fell into oblivion. Only in Middle Ages Alishan and a few other scientists remembered about it, preserving it for the next generations.
In pagan times Armenians like Greeks and Romans named the days of the week after the sun, the moon and the five known at those times planets.
1. Aregaki – Sunday 2. Lousni – Monday 3. Hradi – Tuesday 4. Paylatsoui - Wednesday 5. Lousntagi – Thursday 6. Arousyaki – Friday 7. Yerevaki - Saturday Concerning months, Armenians were using 13 of them like Persians and Egyptians. 12 months had 30
days each, and 13-th month could hold 5 or 6 days depending on whether the year was a leap-year or not.
1.Navasard-30days 2.Gor-30days 3.Sahm-30days 4.Treh-30days 5.Qaghots-30days 19
6.Arats-30days 7.Meheki-30days 8.Aregi-30days 9.Aheki-30days 10.Mareri-30days
11. Margats - 30 days 12. Hrotits - 30 days 13. Avelyats - 5(6) days It is notable that in Ancient Armenian Calendar not only months had their names, but also all the month days.
Each day was named after of the gods of the Armenian pantheon.
1. Areg 2. Hrand 3. Aram 4. Margar 5. Ahranq 6. Madegh 7. Astghik 8. Mihr 9. Dzopaber 10. Mourts 11. Yerezkan 12. Ani 13. Parkhar 14. Vanat 15. Aramazd 16. Mani 17. Asak 18. Masis 19. Anahit 20. Aragats 21. Grgor 22. Kordouiq 23. Tsmak 24. Lousnak 25. Tsron 26. Npat. 27. Vahagn Npat 28. Sein 29. Varag 30. Gisheravar
24 hours of the day also had their sepparate names.
Nighttime hours: 1. Khavarakann 2. Aghjamughjn 3. Mtatsyaln 4. Shaghavotn 5. Kamavotn 6. Bavakann 7. Havtapyaln 8. Gizkan 9. Lusatschemn 10. Aravotn 11. Lusapayln 12. Paylatsumn.
Daytime hours: 13. Aygn 14. Tsaygn 15. Zoratsyaln 16. Tscharagaytyaln 17. Sharavighyaln 18. Yerkratesn 19. Shantakaln 20. Hrakatn 21. Hourtapyaln 22. Toghantyaln 23. Aravarn 24. Arpoghn
Dr. Bilezikian is Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at the College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbi- aUniversity and is Chief of the Division of Endocrinology and Director of the Metabolic Bone Diseases Pro- gram at Columbia-PresbyterianMedicalCenter. He served as ISCD President (1999-2001), chaired the Interna- tional Relations Committee (2003-2005), and serves on Board of Directors. He currently serves as a member of the Board of Governance and on the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foun- dation (1999 – present). John also sits on the Steering Committee of the World Foundation for Medical Studies in Female Health (1995 – present).
Honors and Awards
1965 L. J. Henderson Prize, Biochemistry, Harvard College 1968 Alpha Omega Alpha (Columbia University, Physicians & Surgeons Chapter) 1976 J. Murray Steele Award, New York Heart Association 1977 Steven Triennial Prize, College of Physicians & Surgeons 1977-1982 Research Career Development Award, National Institutes of Health 1987-1989 President, Alumni Association, College of Physicians & Surgeons 1991 Silver Medal, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Alumni Association 1992 Lillian Clark Visiting Professor in Mineral Metabolism, The University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 1993 Alumni Medal, Alumni Federation of Columbia University 1995-1996 President, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 1994-1995 Doody Award: THE PARATHYROIDS (For Best Health Science Books) 1995 Society for Clinical Densitometry (First Honorary Member) 1995 Visiting Professor in Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland 1996 Endocrine Fellows Foundation Visiting Lectureship Award 1996 The MacPherson Visiting Professor and Physician-in-Chief Pro Team, Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medi- cal School, Boston, MA 1996 Visiting Professor, Hong Kong University Medical School, Hong Kong 1997 Visiting Professor and John Edson Lecturer, Long Island College Hospital 1996-1997 Doody Award: PRINCIPLES OF BONE BIOLOGY (For Best Health Science Books) 1997 Visiting Professor, Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 1997 Mayo Clinic Distinguished Lecturer in Medical Science, Rochester, Minnesota 1997 ASBMR Abstract Presentation Award: Outstanding Research in the Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis (shared with Drs. A. Morishima and M. Grumbach) 1997 Plenary Lecturer: 27th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society of India 1998 Distinguished Physician Award, Endocrine Society 1998 Neil Auerbach Memorial Lecturer, Norwalk Hospital 1998 Boy Frame Distinguished Lecturer, Henry Ford Hospital 1999 Featured Lecturer, 3rd International Congress on Osteoporosis, Xian, China 1999 Invited Speaker, 13th Annual Smithwick Symposium, Boston University 1999 Plenary Lecturer, Swiss Bone and Mineral Society, Berne Switzerland
1999 Tisdale Lecturer, University of Vermont Medical School 1999 Invited Speaker, 4th International Conference on New Actions of Parathyroid Hormone, Malta 1999 Honarary Professor of the Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg 1999 Honorary Member, Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo do Metabolismo Osseoe Minard 1999 Featured Speaker, First Congress of the Brazilian Society of Bone and Mineral Metabolism and Sixth In- ternational Symposium on Metabolic Bone Diseases, Recife, Brazil 2000 Speaker, NIH Consensus Development Conference on Osteoporosis 2000 Featured Speaker, IV Argentine Osteoporosis Congress and II Mercosur Congress of Metabolic Bone and Mineral Diseases, Buenos Aires
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